Pacific Swallow: Nesting

posted in: Nesting, Swifts-Swallows | 0


In the Urban Forest blog, Siyang relates his encounter with a Pacific Swallow’s (Hirundo tahitica) nest complete with three chicks. The nest was plastered to a wall in a lonely corner of the National University of Singapore’s Kent Ridge campus (left).

“… a cup shaped nest made of mud with the inside lined with soft bedding-like feathers. Three little heads looked down at me when I was curiously looking at it. Baby swallows!

“The parents dun take kindly to passersby. It attacked Juanhui (missing by inches), directly at Lionel and me (had to duck away) when we walked pass below the nest on separate occasions. Still, I do hope those chicks survived and fly free in the sky soon.”

These Pacific Swallows are common residents in Singapore. They are seen all over the island and have no problems nesting around human habitation. They build their nests around the first half of the year. The nest is a half-cup made of mud stuck to a rough vertical surface, in this case the wall of a building structure.

Both partners assist in mud collection, digging the damp mud with their bill and transporting the pellets back to the nesting site (below). There, the mud is stuck to the vertical surface to create a base from which the side of the nest is developed. Numerous trips are needed before the nest is finally completed in a few days to a few weeks.


The mud is often mixed with vegetable fibres and the nest is lined with dry grass, lichens and feathers. In the case of feathers, they are often caught in flight or collected from the surface of water-bodies.

These nests are recycled year after year after some repairs.

The bird lays a clutch of two to three eggs with the female incubating them for 17-22 days. The chicks have characteristic pale yellow oral flanges enclosing the orange mouth cavity (top). These function as targets for the adults feeding the chicks. This is also seen in Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) and Oriental White-eye (Zosterops palpebrosus).


The food brought for the chicks are in a compressed ball of insects. A ball may serve more than one chick when they are young but as they get older, each may be fed a ball of insects. It take about 20 days for the chicks to fledge, after which they return to the nest at night for several more days. The feeding of the juveniles (right) has been posted earlier.

Some of these swallows have been recorded to live up to seven years.

July 2007

(Images: Siyang (nest with chicks) and Chan Yoke Meng (collecting mud and feeding juveniles).

Spittle, R.J. (1949). Nesting habits of some Singapore birds. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 21:184-204.

Turner, A. K. (2004). [‘Family Hirundinidae (Swallows and Martins)’]. Pp. 602-685 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 9. Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Barcelona: Lynx Editions.

Purple-bearded Bee-eaters in love

posted in: Bee-eaters, Courtship-Mating | 2


“There it was, sitting pretty on a bare branch, wagging its tail in as carefree a manner as you would expect of a wild bird in love. When it swished its head left and right to survey its environs for potential snacks, its flowing purple beard swooshed along in grand fashion. Our hearts half-stopped as we oohed and aahed over the Purple-bearded Bee-eater (Meropogon forsteni), looking most resplendent in purple feathers covering its head, throat and breast, contrasting with its green upper parts, wings and tail streamers, and rich brown belly. Its elongated throat feathers hung over its breast in a “beard” that made it look sombre, yet somewhat comical.

“Out of nowhere, another bee-eater landed suddenly on the same branch. Two purple beauties! We were beside ourselves with excitement! I inched forward to photograph the pair with my tiny camera. Without warning, the first bird lowered its body by leaning forward until its belly touched the branch. Apparently, this was the female, and she was actually prepping herself for mating. Her position was so precarious, compared to her typical upright posture, that she looked ready to topple off the branch altogether. Grasping the opportunity, the male hopped onto her back and the mating session was over in the blink of an eye. And I had unwittingly captured a shot of these birds in union! Just as quickly as it happened, both birds flew off, leaving us exultant and a little dazed.

“The Purple-bearded Bee-eater is definitely one of the highlights of any birder’s trip to Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is endemic to Sulawesi, found only on this island and nowhere else on earth. Three of us, Yong Ding Li, Goh Yue Yun and myself worked the tough, steep slopes of the Anaso Track of Mount Rorekatimbu for five full days to see this bird and other montane endemics, from 28 May to 1 June 2007. The Sulawesi leg was the last of our 4-island East Indonesian birding tour that Ding Li and I were on, covering also West Timor, Flores and Bali.


[The two images of the Purple-bearded Bee-eater above are courtesy of Paul Pearson (left) and Andy Rhodes (right). The image below is by Pete Morris of Birdquest.]

“Over the next few days, we spotted three pairs of these bee-eaters, always hanging around three points along the Anaso Track. These hang-outs had one thing in common – they were all in open areas and near sandy ravines that provided suitable nesting ground for the birds. Purple-bearded Bee-eaters are known to dig burrows in steep banks near forest streams, cliffs, high-level roads, and banks by forest paths. The burrows serve as nests for the bee-eaters.


“We also observed them engaged in typical bee-eater hunts. From its perch, the bee-eater surveys its immediate vicinity. When it spots something, it swoops forward in a graceful arc, returning to its perch with a struggling insect (usually bees, beetles, wasps or dragonflies) clamped tight in its long beak. The insect is then smashed repeatedly on the branch to kill it, and to remove any indigestible parts (like a bee’s sting) and venom. It is then swallowed whole. During sallies, the Purple-bearded Bee-eater might emit a quiet, shrill “szit” or “peet” call. Curiously, bee-eaters are programmed to catch only flying insects. The moment an insect lands, it loses interest even if its prey is in plain sight.

“Together with the Red-bearded Bee-eater (Nyctyornis amictus) and Blue-bearded Bee-eater (Nyctyornis athertoni), the Purple-bearded Bee-eater completes the bearded bee-eater family Nyctyornithidae. All other bee-eaters belong to the family Meropidae.”

Top images of the copulating birds by Gloria, others by Paul Pearson, Andy Rhodes and Pete Morris.

Gloria Seow
June 2007

Visit Gloria’s blog by clicking HERE.

Swallows, a dead snake and a horde of flies

posted in: Feeding-invertebrates | 1


As Paul Chan was driving along Choa Chu Kang on the morning of 27th June 2007, he came across a decomposing snake lying across the road (above). It was obviously killed some time ago as it tried to slither across the busy road.

As Paul wrote in the Pigeon-holes e-forum: “the carcass had attracted a bunch of flies, which in turn attracted the swallows! It was very interesting watching the swallows go for the flies. Every time the swallows swooped down, the flies would scatter, and then almost immediately, congregated back above the snake. There must have been at least five to six birds going at it.”


The bird has been identified as Pacific Swallow (Hirundo tahitica) (left). This common resident, formerly found largely in the coastal areas, is now seen all over the island. The other swallow, the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), is a common winter visitor and passage migrant. It is distinct from Pacific in the presence of a black breast band and deeply forked tail.

The swallow feeds on insects, mainly flying ants. These are caught on the wing, together with flies, beetles, termites.

They often perch in pairs on a branch with a clear view of a bare area, waiting for passing insects. In this case the birds were taking advantage of the flies around the rotting snake, making multiple swooping flights to pick out the flies one by one.

Paul Chan
June 2007

(Image of snake by Paul Chan and of swallow by Johnny Wee.)

Black-thighed Falconet: Mating and nesting rituals

posted in: Feeding chicks, Nesting, Raptors | 2

The Black-thighed Falconet (Microhierax fringillarius), 15-17 cm in size and monotypic, can be found quite easily in Peninsular Malaysia. In early 2007, Ms Connie Khoo, a passionate birder and digiscoper, spent time in the heat of the day keeping watch as well as making detailed notes on the nesting cycle of this bird.


The nest or eyrie was about 10 meters above ground on the cliff face near Kek Lok Tong in Ipoh, Malaysia, an area famous for its limestone hills and caves. The image above gives you an idea of the type of limestone habitat where the nesting took place.

She noticed four adults looking after four chicks. The four chicks most probably came from one pair of adults while the other two adults were probably helpers. It is known that raptors can be sociable in that they come together to help each other during the breeding periods. This has also been observed in Silver-breasted Broadbill (Serilophus lunatus), seen in Bukit Tinggi during the last nesting season, where helpers got involved in nest building.

Copulation took 30 seconds to about 1 minute 12 seconds to complete. Observations in 2005 and 2006 recorded 1 minute 28 seconds, although it cannot be confirmed whether the same birds were involved.


On 5th April the female was possibly incubating her eggs, which can be from two to as many as five. The female stayed in the nest for long periods, occasionally appearing at the nest entrance for fresh air and to ease herself (above left). All this time the male would deliver prey for her to eat. And he would leave in about 10-30 seconds after delivering the food.


The incubation period was about 3-4 weeks and the chicks fledged in another 4-5 weeks. On 2nd May, the first chick was seen covered with white down feathers, and was probably about 7-10 days old. The image at the top (below the limestone cliff) shows a 15-18 days old chick at the entrance of the nest.

On 31st May a young juvenile was seen strengthening its jaw by yawning for about 50 minutes (right). When the male brought food, the juvenile finished it quickly and continued yawning for another 20 minutes. This yawning exercise was seen again on 2nd June and lasted 35 mintues.


The juveniles were fed dragonflies, butterflies (above right), beetles, spiders (above left), small birds like sunbird, tailorbird, munia (below right) and tree sparrow. Occasionally there would be a small lizard or a rat. However when the chicks were very young they were fed only dragonflies, beetles, moths, butterflies and spiders.


Occasionally, mynas and starlings would appear around the eyrie. Invariably the adults would fly back to chase away the intruders. On 7th May at 11.08 am, a tree sparrow appeared and perched just outside the nest. The female falconet suddenly emerged from the nest and caught the surprised sparrow (above left).

By 2nd June the juveniles must have grown quite a bit as one was observed catching a dragonfly by itself (below). However they still needed the parents to catch for them more substantial meals like birds and other small prey. During this period when the juveniles were actively exploring the surrounding areas, the adults were constantly keeping a watchful eye on them, to prevent them from becoming prey to other birds.


On 5th and 9th June when Connie again checked the eyrie, she could not see all the four juveniles. Only one or two adults were in the vicinity. The rest of the adults were possibly teaching the juveniles how to hunt. At 10.25 am she saw one female with one juvenile flying back to sit on the wire. Shortly after, the female left the juvenile and twice brought back a dragonfly each time for the same juvenile. The juvenile was then yawning a lot, possibly to continue strengthen its jaw.

Connie Khoo
Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
19th June 2007

Baya Weaver – Hornets

posted in: Interspecific | 4


Birds have been known to build their nests in close proximity to nests or hives of ants, bees and wasps. There is an advantage in such a relationship as the nesting birds are generally protected from predators, not so much by ants but more so by wasps.

A number of Baya Weaver (Ploceus philippinus) nests were recently seen high up the same tree where the lesser-banded hornets (Vespa affinia, Family Vespidae) have built their large nest (right). This nest, built from finely chewed fragments of wood mixed with saliva, has a typically papery appearance, thus it is sometimes known as paper wasp (below).

A social insect, the hornet has a distinct yellow banding on its first and second abdominal segments. It is also the most aggressive of the three species of hornets found in Singapore. It will attack with the slightest provocation and its sting is painful. The effect of the poison injected with the sting depends on the species and how sensitive the victim is to the poison. Response can be localized pain, swelling and redness. In more serious cases chest constriction, wheezing and vomiting may occur. Immediate medical attention is advisable.


Because of the poisonous nature of its sting and its inclination to attack at the slightest provocation, hornet gives perfect protection to the nesting weavers.

In a study in Ghana, it was shown that the Red-cheeked Cordonbleu (Uraeginthus bengalus) benefited by nesting near the wasp Ropalidia cincta. The chicks of these birds were twice as likely to fledge as those that nest in trees without wasps. Reduced predation was apparently a major reason for increased fledging success. There were four cases of nest predation on 122 Red-cheeked Cordonbleu nests associated with wasps, and 11 cases on 90 nests not associated with wasps.

Text by YC Wee, images by Chan Yoke Meng, wasp identification by Prof Cheong Loong Fah

Beier, P. & Tungbani, A. I. (2006). Nesting with the wasp Ropalidia cincta increases nest success of Red-cheeked Cordonbleu (Uraeginthus bengalus) in Ghana. The Auk 123(4):1022-37.

Gopalakrishnakone, P. (ed.) (1990). A colour guide to dangerous animals. Singapore University Press.

Oriental Pied Hornbill: Guava

posted in: Hornbills | 1


In early May 2007 an Oriental Pied Hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) visited Johnny Wee’s garden to raid his guava tree (Psidium guajava). The visit came one afternoon, after a prolonged period of a few days of rain. He was alerted to the presence of the bird by its characteristic call. Peering out of his bedroom window, he was visibly excited to have this large bird paying him a private visit.

The bird was quietly pecking the ripe guava fruits and taking pieces from them. As soon as it had a piece of the fruit at the tip of its bill, it tipped its head back to allow the piece to fall into its throat. Apparently the fruits are too large and possibly too hard for the bird to swallow them whole, unlike with the larger figs.

We now have on record for Singapore of the Oriental Pied Hornbill eating guava fruits and the bird is obviously another dispersal agent.

The guava tree is not native to Singapore (above). It was introduced to this part of the world a very long time ago probably by the Portuguese explorers. This exotic plant has now become naturalised all over the tropics and subtropics, in some places even becoming a weed. And birds play a leading role in its spread.

Once there were plenty of these trees around, especially in our rural farm areas. Nowadays a few may still be growing in private gardens, parks and wastelands. The tree is sun-loving, meaning that seedlings sprout in open areas. It is also fast growing, fruiting within a year or so. It fruits profusely and many birds are attracted to the succulent fruits that are full of numerous, small, hard seeds. These seeds pass through the alimentary tract of the birds to be deposited some distance away. In other countries cattle, horses and even pigs help spread the seeds. And these seeds remain viable in the ground for long periods.

This is another example of an exotic plant that has become useful to our birds.

Johnny Wee
May 2007

Olive-backed Sunbird: Nesting misadventure

posted in: Nesting-failed, Sunbirds | 2


Goh Si Guim tells the sad story of a pair of Olive-backed Sunbird (Cinnyris jugularis) that nested along the third floor balcony of a private house. The nest was built suspended from a money plant (Epipremnum pinnatum Aureum) growing in a pot that sits among other potted plants (left). To the untrained eyes the elongated nest looks like a mass of dead leaves stuck together with cobwebs. And that was what the residents thought. Until there was frenzy of feeding activities when the chicks hatched…

“Apparently nobody paid any attention to this mass of dried plant matters, never even realizing that it was a sunbird’s nest. It was only when the eggs hatched and the feeding frenzy started that the residents began to take notice of the nest. And of course when the plants were watered, there were angry confrontations with the parent birds.

“Apparently the original nesting began sometime in mid-April 2007. And the chicks fledged successfully.

“In the third week of May there was a frenzy of nest building when the birds got down to raising their second brood along the same balcony. They were actually refurbishing the old nest, adding new materials… By early June the chirping of the chicks were heard.


“On Monday morning, 11th June, disaster struck:

“In the words of the homeowner: ‘As I was having my breakfast, my thoughts were interrupted by incessant squeaks and tweets. Looking out into my balcony, I noticed the papa sunbird nudging his chick. The chick seemed to have fallen onto the floor and the papa sunbird was trying to move it back into the nest, a near impossible task as the chick was as big as its papa (right bottom).

“’As I went out to investigate, I noticed another chick a few feet away. The nest had given way! (right top). I then saw the mama bird nearby. Both the mama and papa birds were bringing food to their chicks so that they would not get hungry.’

“When the homeowner’s father arrived 15 minutes later, one of the birds had disappeared! ‘Father came and immediately began his rescue mission. Unfortunately, one chick had disappeared.’ It remained unknown whether it fell off the balcony or was snatched by a predatory bird.

“In their haste to start the next family, the maintenance or re-sprucing of the original nest may not have been up to standard. The wear and tear may have not allowed it to sustain the weight of the growing chicks, or it got too crowded and the structure gave way.


“The remnant of the nest was cut and placed in a plastic dessert bowl. The remaining chick was placed with this makeshift nest, which is then placed partially hidden among the potted plants (above left). It was hoped that the chick would feel secure and familiar near the nest and that the parents would recognise the chick and continue to feed it.

“The homeowner continued: ‘By night fall, the chick had crawled up the nest to sleep (above right). We shall have to wait to see if the papa and mama bird will come back to the chick.’


“However, the next morning, it was noticed that the chick was silent and was not responding to the calls of the parents (left). It may have been disorientated from being out of the protective comfort of the nest or instinctively chose to remain silent to avoid detection or predation by marauding crows. As the chick did not respond to the parents’ calls, they did not proceed to feed it.

“This did not augur well.

“However, as the homeowner would be at work the whole day, hopefully there would be ample time for the family to get re-acquainted with each other.

“Alas, my premonition was accurate. The chick did not survive the day. It was found lying on its side, motionless, by the homeowner on Tuesday night. The papa and mama birds were on a nearby tree to mourn their loss.”

Goh Si Guim
May 2007

Spotted Dove: Courtship?

posted in: Courtship-Mating, Pigeon-Dove | 0


For the last six months, Johnny Wee had been noticing a pair of Spotted Dove (Streptopelia chinensis) at around noon, especially when the weather was hot. They would arrive to perch along the metal bar that formed part of the boundary fence of his house (left). There, the birds rested, shaded from the hot sun. They stayed for about half an hour each time, silently doing their own comfort activities – not a sound was heard while they were there. There were no flapping of wings, no bobbing of heads and no sign of copulation.

All the birds did was preen. Sitting slightly apart and with feathers fluffed, each bird would indulge in self-preening. Every now and then they would sit close and allopreen. One bird (male? female?) would stretch out and preen the head of its partner, then stretch further across the neck to reach the other side of the head and neck. It is noted that the preening bird often had its eyes closed or partially closed. The bird that was preened had its eyes fully open (below). [Should it not be the other way round?]


Is this part of the courtship ritual of the Spotted Dove? Or is it a normal bonding activity between a pair of doves? Normally, the onset of breeding would see the birds prospecting for suitable nesting sites before actual nest building takes place. And courtship displays may involved one or more of the following: strutting with accompanying wings-tail movements, feeding and aerial displays. The sad fact is that we are mostly ignorant of what actually happened during this period – I may be wrong here and by all means please prove me wrong. And this bird is relatively common and easy to observe in urban areas. On top of it the bird is easy to recognise from the trademark patch of black and white chequer on the sides of the neck.

Johnny Wee
June 2007

Black-backed, Rufous-backed or Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher?

posted in: Kingfishers | 5

In June 2007, Singapore photographers were travelling regularly to Johor, Malaysia to photograph a pair of rare resident kingfishers nesting in the Panti forest. These birds are identified as Rufous-backed Kingfisher (Ceyx rufidorsa) (below). However, comparing the images with that in Robson (2005), the birds from Panti show more black on the wings but not as much as in the Black-backed Kingfisher (Ceyx erithacus). This is also the case in Morten’s (2000) photographic guide.

When shown a couple of the recent images from Johor, Morten commented: “…very dark wings, is that really a Johor bird? darkest resident bird I have ever seen… my pictures from that area have very orange wings…”

The above two guide books treat Rufous-backed and Black-backed as two distinct species. However, Lekagul & Round (1991) in their Birds of Thailand, consider them as a single species.

Now are the birds seen in Panti, Rufour-backed or Black-backed Kingfisher? In other words, are there two distinct species or are the two, variations of a single species? Ornithologists are beginning to agree that there is only one species, with a range of intermediate forms as a result of hybridisation of two subspecies, the black-back and the red-back forms.


Ripley & Beehler (1987) consider that there are two distinct species; while Sims (1959) as only one species.

The more recent publications have all accepted that there are only one species, Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher (Cyex erithacus), with subspecies – erithacus (black-back) and rufidorsa (red-back) (Wells, 1999; Wang & Hails, 2007).

In the treatment of kingfishers for the series Birds of the World, Woodall (2001) similarly treats these two groups as a single species. His justification is that there is widespread hybridisation in the populations in Borneo, Sumatra and south of Peninsular Malaysia, resulting in a wide range of intermediate forms. He believes that the original decision to distinguish two species originated from the population in north of Kuala Lumpur where there is little hybridiation, as the black-backed is migratory.

The evidence is clear that the black-backed and red-backed are just different forms of the same species, Ceyx erithacus or the Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher. In Borneo some 80% of specimens show intermediate characteristics to some degree or another (Sims, 1959). And the Panti birds similarly show intermediate characters.

Birders should call these birds Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher.

YC Wee
June 2007
(Images Philip Tang)


Foo Sai Khoon has since sent in the image on the right and commented: “There were at least two pairs of Oriental Dwarf Kingfishers nesting in Panti this year. The feathers of kingfisher are rather special in that they can look slightly different under varying light conditions, due to the way they reflect light. I have enclosed an image of the Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher taken at Panti recently for your discussion.

“From my experience, flash tends to bring out the colour of kingfishers making them look more vibrant and perhaps less dark?

“Cheers, Sai Khoon.”
23rd June 2007

Lekagul, B. & Round, P.D. (1991). A guide to the Birds of Thailand. Thailand: Saha Karn Bhaet Co. Ltd.
Morten, S. (2000). A photographic guide to the birds of Malaysia and Singapore. Hongkong: Periplus Ed.
Ripley, S.D. & Beehler, B.M. (1987). Species status of the Malaysian three-toed kingfishers (Ceyx) – a reassessment. Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club. 107:145-51.
Robson, C. (2005). Birds of South-east Asia. London: New Holland.
Sims, R.W. (1959). The Ceyx erithacus and C. rufidorsus problem. J. Linn. Soc. (Zoology) xliv, 296:212-21.
Wang. L.K. & Hails, C. J. (2007) An annotated checklist of birds of Singapore. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 15:1-179.
Wells, D.R. (1999). The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsular. Vol. I, Non-passerines. Academic Press, London.
Woodall, P.F. (2001). Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers). Pp. 130-249 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. (2001). Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 6. Mousebirds to Hornbills. Barcelona: Lynx Editions.

Wendy and William T Cooper

posted in: Travel-Personality | 1


Wendy and William T Cooper were in town around mid-June 2007, arriving from Cairns, Queensland where they live. They were en route to Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra. They will be working as a team, she will be seeking out certain plants and he will be sketching and painting them.

Wendy is well known for her lavishly illustrated book, Fruits of the Australian Tropical Rainforest, published in 2004 (Melbourne: Nokomis Editions). Her husband Bill is the artist responsible for the superb illustrations of the fruits.

Bill is well known in his own right – being an award-winning natural-history artist and illustrator. He illustrated many of the books that Joseph M Forshaw, the internationally renowned parrot expert, wrote over the years. These include Turacos: A Natural History of the Musophagidae; Parrots of the World; Australian Parrots; and Kingfishers & Related Birds Vol. 1: Alcedinidae (Kingfishers) – Ceryle to Cittura.

Bill has also illustrated other bird books like The Birds of Paradise: Paradisaeidae by Clifford B. Frith and Bruce McP Beehler and A Portfolio of Australian Birds by Keith Hindwood.

YC Wee
June 2007

26 Responses

  1. kris

    I just found a young dollarbird in the garden.. It seems to have left the nest too early and cannot fly yet. How am i to keep and feed it for a few days untill it can fly.???

  2. Iwan

    We have a small pond in our garden surrounded by trees and steep bedrock. The other day we saw a heron flying over and attempting to land – I guess to try to eat our small stock of fish. We managed to frighten it away before it landed, and have since installed trip wires around the pond in order to dissuade the bird. The amount of shelter around the pond means that a heron would have to land practically vertically. Does anyone know whether these birds have the agility to hover and land in this way, or do they always need a “glidepath” in order to land successfully?

  3. Khng Eu Meng

    Today, at the former Bidadari Cemetery, there was a buzz about a sighting of a Grey Nightjar (Caprimulgus jotaka). I heard some birders say this nightjar isn’t commonly seen in Singapore. After some hunting, we spotted it asleep on a tree branch, some 15 m above ground. This was rather interesting as my previous encounters with nightjars have been on either terra firma or on low branches.

    Is this perching so high up the tree normal or is it unusual? I have posted a photo of it on my Facebook Timeline:

  4. Jess

    Bird Sanctuary At Former Bidadari Cementry

    1)Which is the best spot in Bidadari cemetery for bird watch?

    2)Where this bird usually resident at?

    3)What are some of the rare bird species that can be found at Bidadari?

    4)Where is the particular hot spot for the hornbills, eagles, kingfishers and some of the rare migratory bird?

    5)Which part of Bidadari are richest in it wildlife?

    6)Can you name me the 59 migratory bird species found?

  5. YC

    Why not search the website using the word ‘Bidadari’ to obtain the information you need. There should be sufficient info in past postings to satisfy you.

  6. Firdaus Razak

    Hai, I just want to ask did anybody had an experience bring bird from oversea via MasKargo? Did the bird will stress at high altitude?

  7. Chung Wah

    Hi, I am new to bird photography! Could anyone advise a good pair of binoculars to get for this hobby?

  8. Geam Liang

    I ‘acquired’ a female Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot 5 days ago – was in a public place when the bird flew overhead hit the wall and dropped right in front of me dazed. I picked it up, it appeared unhurt but could not sustain it’s flight. I have since constructed a fairly large ‘cage’ for it, about 4ft x 2fx x 2ft and placed it there last night. I temporarily placed her in a normal bird cage until I had completed the build.
    From what I have read up, it’s a fruit, seed and insect feeder and also nectar, flower buds. It’s doing as well as it can on bananas, papaya, jack-fruit (didn’t touch the grape) and seeds (black and white sunflower and other smaller ones). It loves to bathe so I’ve gotten it a tray and from what I read it’s important to keep things clean as it easily succumbs to infection.
    Does anyone else have any useful experience and sharing on it’s upkeep? I suspect this bird is an escapee – as far as I can read up, it’s not common, if at all, found in Georgetown, Penang where I am. I’m also not optimistic that it can survive if I were to set it free – assuming it can sustain it’s flight and not go crashing down and if there were dogs/cats around that would be the end of it.
    I can attach some pictures but not sure how to do this…

  9. Lee Chiu San

    The blue-crowned hanging parrot, even though very closely related to the lovebirds, is a nectar feeder. You would raise it the way you raise a lorikeet – which is a messy process. And because you are mixing batches of food for just one little bird, whereas I used to do it for about half a dozen pigeon-sized lorikeets each morning, I don’t know how you are going to get the portions down to manageable sizes. Anyway, here goes, with my recipe for feeding big lories. You can adjust the proportions down accordingly for your little bird.

    The staple diet would be a couple of slices of soft fruit (papaya, apple, grapes, even though I am surprised that you said the bird would not eat any) and a mixture of cooked rice sweetened with nectar mix.

    How to make nectar mix? Go to a pharmacy and get a can of food for invalids or infants. I use Complan, but I am sure any good baby formula would do. I usually make up enough to fill a beer mug, but there is no way you need that amount for a day’s feeding. If in doubt, make the mixture thinner, not thicker. Birds cannot digest baby formula that is too thick. If it is too thin, they simply have to consume more to get the required amount of energy. Then to this mug, add half a teaspoonful of rose syrup. Also stir in about a cup of cooked rice, well mashed up.

    In the case of your bird, I suggest that you pour this lot into an ice-cube tray, freeze the mixture, and defrost one cube to feed it each day.

    Now, you said that this bird eats sunflower seeds. This is most unusual for a blue-crowned hanging parrot. Are you sure that this is actually the species you have? Could it be possible that you have actually got a pet lovebird that escaped? There are so many different artificially-created breeds of lovebirds in so many colours that you might have been mistaken.

    If you actually have a lovebird, feeding is much simpler. Just go to the nearest pet shop, buy a packet of budgerigar or cockatiel seed of a reputable international brand, and offer it to the bird. You can supplement this with a couple of slices of fruit each day, and that will be all. Plus of course fresh water and a piece of cuttlefish bone to nibble on.

  10. Lee Chiu San

    About nectar feeding birds. I forgot to add that feeding nectar is messy, and it goes rancid very quickly in our tropical weather. Feeding containers have to be removed and thoroughly cleaned at the end of each day. The birds also splatter the mixture and wipe their beaks on perches and the bars of the cage. All my lories and lorikeets used to be housed in outdoor aviaries which were hosed down daily.

    If Geam Liang does not think the bird will survive if released, I really hope that it is a case of mistaken identity, and that you have a lovebird, rather than a blue-crowned hanging parrot. In our part of the world, all available lovebirds are domestically bred, take to captivity readily, and are easy to feed with commercially available seed mixtures. Yes, and being domestic pets, they would not survive if released.

  11. Geam Liang

    Thank you Chiu San for your inputs. Thus far, bananas and papayas work well. I’m not sure why it did not take to grapes – will try again. Am I supposed to peel it? I didn’t the last time, basically skewered a couple of grapes to a satay stick and positioned it as I did for the sliced and skinned papaya and peeled bananas.
    I have yet to try rice and certainly not nectar but will try out your concoction – have half a mind to go to a pet shop to see if they carry nectar for birds. The ice-cube freeze method is a good one, will try that. I might be mistaken on the sunflower seeds… not touched but it did eat the much smaller roundish, mixed colored seeds. Will remove the sunflower seeds.
    I’m sure it’s a female blue crowned hanging parrot.. it sleeps like a bat every night.

  12. Lee Chiu San

    When feeding local birds which are unfamiliar with imported fruits such as grapes, it helps to split the fruits to expose the edible parts. As to your remark that the bird sleeps hanging upside down like a bat, yes, that is the way blue-crowned hanging parrots sleep.

  13. Geam Liang

    Thanks… I need to think like a bird – yup. She has probably not seen a grape much less know that it’s edible, unless the previous owner has fed her with grapes… even then… Today she’s done pretty well making the most of the banana and all of the papaya plus quite a bit of seeds. Will try the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup.
    Will regular honey do instead of rose syrup?

  14. Lee Chiu San

    About making nectar to feed birds. Most aviculturalists do not use honey for two reasons: 1. It is expensive and does not seem to give any added benefits. 2. Honey is made by bees, and the composition varies wildly. Some honeys are also known to cause fungal infection in birds.

    If you do not want to buy a huge bottle of rose syrup just for one tiny bird, there are cheaper alternatives. The first is plain table sugar, though most don’t seem to like it very much.

    What many birds will accept quite readily as a sweetener is condensed milk – the type with sugar that coffee shop owners use.

    Many, many birds have a sweet tooth (or should I say sweet beak?) Besides the usual suspects of lories, lorikeets, sunbirds and hummingbirds, for whom it is an essential part of the diet, nectar mixture is readily consumed by mynahs, leafbirds, fairy bluebirds, barbets, doves, parrots of all kinds, and a whole host of other species.

  15. Geam Liang

    I tried the condensed mild, placed in in a small bottle cap.. only the ants showed interest. Am I supposed to dilute it? I didn’t =( I took you advice and refrained from honey. Have yet to find Rose Syrup from the shelves of TESCO… will try to mix the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup/sugar syrup this week…

  16. David Thackray

    Can anyone help me identify a bird I saw in Singapore last week. Size of a smakll dove or thrush. Dark metallic back. Grey breast with red throat, chest.

  17. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers

  18. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers.

  19. Mahadevi Bhuti

    One of best souce for the bird watcher’s enjoying knowledge about ornithology

  20. Martin Nyffeler (PhD)

    Dear Sir / Dear Madame,

    I am a Senior Lecturer in Zoology at a University in Switzerland and I urgently need to get in touch with photographer Chan Yoke Meng, who takes beautiful photographs of birds near Singapore. Would you please mail me the email address of this photographer!


  21. Wee Ming

    Hello Besgroup,

    Trust this email finds you well. We chance upon your photograph on your website and found the amazing image of the Laced Woodpecker and durians. We would like to explore the possibility of getting permission to use them for a new Bird Park in Singapore.

    Spacelogic is a company based in Singapore and we have been contracted by Mandai Park Development to carry out design and build works relating to the exhibition interpretive displays in this new Bird Park.

    Some background of the new Mandai Bird Park project; it will build upon the legacy of the Jurong Bird Park – by retaining and building upon a world-reference bird collection and creating a place of colour and joy for all visitors. The new Bird Park will have a world-reference ornithological collection displayed in a highly immersive way with large walk-through habitats. To enhance visitors’ experience with storyline and narrative of the bird park, transition spaces are added to display exhibits that provide a varied type of fun, intuitive, interactive and educational experiences for all visitors. One of the habitats features the Laced Woodpecker on a flora panel It is in this flora panel that we are seeking your permission to feature the Laced Woodpecker. We are looking to use the first image on the link here.
    Link can be found here:

    We would like to ask if this is something that we can explore further and if yes, how can we go about with putting through a formal permission request. Thank you so much for considering our request and we look forward to hearing from you.

    Warmest Regards,
    Wee Ming
    SPACElogic Pte Ltd

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