White-breasted Woodswallow mating

posted in: Courtship-Mating | 0

Irfan Choo is sharing with us images he took of a pair of White-breasted Woodswallows (Artamus leucorynchus) mating high up on a horizontal cable perch in Selangor, Malaysia (left).

White-breasted Woodswallow is found in Southeast Asia and Australasia, but not in Singapore. This is a small, agile flyer, with large pointed wings, often soaring/gliding in the air. In flight it is easily recognised from its broad pointed wings and short tail, that gives it a triangular shape. The bluish bill and white underparts and underwings against a charcoal black head are diagnostic.

This is an insectivorous bird, catching insects on the wing.

A nomadic species, the bird often roosts in large flocks.

Its nest is a shallow, bowl-shaped structure made of roots, grasses and twigs, lined with fine grasses. This is built in a tree fork, hollow stump or even inside an abandoned nest of a Magpie-lark. Both sexes participate in nest building, incubation and looking after the chicks.

Input and images courtesy of Irfan Choo – www.irfanchoo.com

Eye colour in bulbuls

posted in: Morphology-Develop., Species | 0

Light enters the eye through the pupil. The iris (Latin for “rainbow), the coloured part of the eye surrounding the pupil, controls the amount entering the eye. When lighting is bright, the pupil closes. It opens up when lighting is reduced.


Although most birds have a dark, usually brown, iris around a black pupil, there are many with irises that are conspicuously coloured. The colours can be from white to yellow to orange, blue, red or even concentric rings of two or more colours, as in some grebes.

Iris colour can be important in bird identification in certain groups, like the bulbuls. There are 24 species of bulbuls in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Many are similar in size and plumage colour, sometimes differentiated mainly by eye colour.

Indeed, many species have conspicuously coloured eyes, eyerings and eye wattles. The Asian and African species are known for their conspicuously coloured irises, from blue to red, orange, yellow or white, especially among the adult birds.

Take for example, the adult Cream-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus simplex) (left top). It has cream-white eyes, especially in the Peninsular Malaysian race, although in Borneo there are those with red eyes. Immature, however, has dull-coloured eyes. On the other hand, the eyes of the Black-headed Bulbul (P. atriceps) are pale blue, that may appear whitish at a distance (left bottom).

Red-eyed Bulbul (P. brunneus), as the name implies, has red eyes, although sometimes it may be cream-coloured (bottom left).


Similarly the Straw-headed Bulbul (P. zeylanicus) has red eyes. In the Olive-winged Bulbul (P. plumosus), they are brownish-orange, red or dark red, and this is age related (top right). Those of the Finsch’s Bulbul (Alophoixus finschii) are pale yellow-brown to orange-brown. And in the Streaked Bulbul (Ixos malaccensis), they are dull reddish-brown to deep red. Spectacled Bulbul (P. erythropthalmos) has a red iris but there is also a yellow to yellow-orange eyering (right).


Input by Morten Strange and YC, images from the book “A Passion for Birds” courtesy of Ong Kiem Sian.
Fishpool, L.D.C. & Tobias, J.A. (2005). Family Pycnonotidae (bulbuls). Pp. 124-251 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. eds. Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 10. Cucuoo-shrikes to Thrushes. Barcelona: Lynx Editions.

Arrival of the Peregrine Falcon

posted in: Migration-Migrants, Raptors | 0


On the morning of 26th December 2007, KC Tsang documented the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) at the Japanese Garden in Jurong (above). The bird was spotted by Margaret Yeo who alerted Amy and KC.

The Peregrine Falcon is widely distributed throughout the world. Its habitat is extremely variable, from the hot tropics to the high Arctic; from the coast to far inland; from semi-desert to forest; and from sea level to an altitude of about 4,000 metres. It breeds in all continents except Antarctica.


The uncommon visitor and passage migrant that is seen locally during the winter months is the subspecies japonensis. Its arrival can be as early as the first week of August to late May.

It breeds in West Siberia to Kamchatka and migrates to North Africa, Sri Lanka, Indochina, Thailand, the Malay Peninsular and as far south as Sumatra.

Latest: Jimmy Tan sent in the image on the left on 9th January 2008 stating: “There was also another Peregrine Falcon there at around the same period which appeared to have pick up some oil stains. Notice that its claws were also stained.”

Input and image by KC Tsang and Jimmy Tan; top image by KC and bottom by Jimmy.

Asian Paradise-flycatcher: Fan-tail flushing

posted in: Feeding strategy | 4


Johnny Wee had an exciting encounter with a female Asian Paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi) at the Chinese Garden in Jurong on the morning of 21st December 2007. Not only did he get his shots, he was able to observe an interesting behaviour.

The bird was quietly perching on a branch of the bodh-tree (Ficus religiosa). Suddenly it fanned out its tail feathers. The movement of the fanned tail helped flush the insects around. The bird then sallied forth to snatch at them and returned to its perch. It then shook its body, partly spread its wings but leaving them drooping and spread the tail feathers wider. With tail partly opened, it did a sideway fanning, flushing more insects. It continued doing this a few more times.

Asian Paradise-flycatcher has been reported to take insects and other arthropods from a perch, sallying forth to snatch them. It then returns to the same branch or a different one to enjoy its catch. The bird also indulges in twig-gleaning and foliage-gleaning, although less frequently. Occasionally, it descends to the forest floor to flush insects by fluttering its wings.

The African Paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone viridis) has been observed using this fan-tail flushing (Coates et al. 2006) but there is no mention by Wells (2007) or Smythies (1999) for Asian Paradise-flycatcher seen around the Thai-Malay Peninsular and Borneo.

According to the literature, this method is common in a number of genera in the Monarch-Flycatchers family, Monarchidae.

It is possible that this fanning of the tail disturbs insects not so much from the movements but from the shadow cast under high light conditions, as shown in observations made on Willie Wagtail (Rhipidura leucophrys).

I am sure Johnny finds it more fun observing birds than just watching them!

Johnny Wee
January 2008

1.Coates, B.J., Dutson, G.C.L. & Filardi, C.E. (2006). Family Monarchidae (Monarch-Flycatchers). Pp.244-329 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D. A. eds. Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Editions.
2. Smythies, B. E. (1999). Birds of Borneo. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Pub. (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd. & The Sabah Society. 4th ed, revised by G. W. H. Davison.
3. Wells, D.R. (2007). The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsular. Vol. II, Passerines. Christopher Helm, London.

The Large-tailed Nightjar and the spider 060108

posted in: Miscellaneous | 0

The Large-tailed Nightjar (Caprimulgus macrurus) is insectivorous. It feeds at dusk and just before dawn, sallying from a perch or even from the ground. It often perches on wiring immediately above street lamps, catching insects attracted to the light.

Its diet consists mostly of night-flying winged insects that are mostly taken and swallowed on the wing. Food may also be gleaned from leaves, twigs, branches or even from the ground.

The wide gape lined with long, tactile rictal bristles helps it to locate and channel small insects into its mouth as the bird flies around trawling for them. Larger insects are simply caught between the bill.

It has been recorded that it takes moths, crickets, grasshoppers, wasps, earwigs, bugs and beetles.

I suppose spiders are also taken.

The attached images show a small spider that has landed on the head of this bird. Obviously it is safe there as the bird is not able to reach it. However, this would not be the case should the spider moves away. It could then become an instant snack.

Input and images by Johnny Wee.

Java Sparrow conservation

posted in: Conservation | 1


The Java Sparrow (Padda oryzivora) is indigenous to Java and Bali, from where it spread throughout the tropical world as a result of deliberate release and escape of captive birds (left).

In its home country of Java, the highest concentration of the sparrow is around the Prambanan Temple area in Yogyakata. This temple, the largest Hindu temple complex in Indonesia, was built during the Sanjaya Dynasty around 732 and is currently designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


As a heritage site the complex is regularly maintained. The surrounding vegetation as well as any growths on the temple walls are cleared. Nests of these sparrows among the archeological complex are similarly removed. Such maintenance obviously affects the nesting sites of these sparrows.

The continued capture of the birds for the cage bird trade again has an effect on the overall population. Kutilang Indonesia Foundation, an NGO, has initiated a conservation programme to ensure the survival of these beautiful Java Sparrows. One of its activities has been the provision of artificial nest boxes to give alternative nesting sites (left).

In 2007 two pairs of birds actually occupied these boxes and successfully raised a total of seven chicks, a sure sign of success for the efforts of the Indonesian NGO.

Sunaring Kurniandaru
January 2008
(Image of the birds-nesting box by Sunaring Kurniandaru, image of Java Sparrow (top) courtesy of Peter Ericsson)

Do birds take water bath only when weather is hot?

posted in: Feathers-maintenance | 0

Reading an earlier blog on the bathing of a Little Heron chick rescued from the wild, Susan Wong commented that she noticed a small flock of Javan Mynas (Acridotheres javanicus) bathing in the many puddles of water formed outside her house.

Susan is of the view that birds bathe to cool themselves during a hot day. The said mynas were bathing at 7.30 am when the sun had yet to rise.

Unfortunately Susan did not have her camera with her that morning so instead, we have provided an image of the Eurasian Tree Sparrows ( Passer montanus ) having a bath in a puddle of water (below).


Yes, birds do bathe on a hot day to cool themselves. A juvenile Buffy Fish Owl (Ketupa ketupu) was observed in the Lower Peirce forest in April 2007 to fly into the water for a bath during the morning or evening when the weather was hot and sunny.

But they also bathe to clean their feathers of dust and ectoparasites, and this may not necessarily be on a hot day.

Besides bathing in puddles formed after rain, they also take advantage of the water droplets that collect on leaves after a heavy spray of water by a gardener or after a drizzle.

Susan Wong
January 2008
(Image by Chan Yoke Meng)

Little Heron chick: 12. Release

posted in: Heron-Egret-Bittern, Rescue | 3

The Little Heron (Butorides striatus) chick has been under my care for a month now (3rd December 2007). The bird has shed all its natal down and is now covered with juvenal plumage. All the flight feathers have fully emerged from their sheaths and the bird has been regularly exercising its wings, flapping them within the confines of the small cage. It is also regularly preening its feathers.

The bird is now responsive to the sounds of other birds around the neighbourhood, stretching its neck and intently listening. It has also been getting more restless, moving round and round the cage and poking its head out between the wires.

All these point to one thing – that it was ready for release into the wild.


So on 3rd December 2007, our field ornithologist Wang Luan Keng came to do a final checking of the ring applied earlier. She assured me that there would be no problems for although the leg bones would grow in length, they would not increase in girth. She also took the final set of measurements of the bird (left) prior to release. These are given below – the figures between brackets were taken on 14th November when the bird was ringed:

Length of bird (relaxed): 310 mm
Weight: 195 g (175)
Bill length: 56 mm (50.4)
Wing length: 165 mm (145)
Tail length: 53 mm (38)
Tarsus length: 42.1 mm (42.1)

The weight of the bird taken earlier:
03 Nov 100g; 04 Nov 120g; 07 Nov 150g; 12 Nov 175g; 03 Dec 195g.


The bird was then released at the edge of a lake near where it was found, where there is vegetation cover for it to take refuge and where there is a plentiful supply of fish (above).

The earlier posts can be viewed HERE: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11.

Wang Luan Keng & YC Wee
January 2008
(Images by YC Wee)


Latest: I have been checking the location regularly, hoping to see the released heron but with no luck. The on the evening of 2nd January 2008, one day short of a month after release, I spotted it by the lake standing on a mound of earth. Then it entered the shallow water and began fishing. It then flew off to the other side of the lake. The Little Heron is alive and well!

Chestnut-bellied Malkohas: A cuckoo that builds its own nest

posted in: Brood parasitism, Nesting | 2


The Chestnut-bellied Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus sumatranus) builds its nest in trees. Made of twigs lodged between the forks of branches, the nest is neatly lined with green leaves (left). In it the female lays two white, glossless eggs.

This malkoha is a cuckoo, but unlike most cuckoos from this region, it actually builds its own nest and takes care of its young.

Cuckoos (Family Cuculidae) are notorious for taking advantage of other bird species to look after their young – from nest building to egg incubation to chick rearing. This is what ornithologists call brood or nest parasitism. One common brood parasite many birders are familiar with is the Asian Koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) that in Singapore makes use of the House Crow (Corvus splendens) to rear its young.


In freeing itself from the hard work of rearing its young, the bird has more time to concentrate on propagating the species.

However, despite the label of being brood parasites, many species of cuckoos actually build their own nests and raise their own young. There are also cases of these cuckoos sometimes laying their eggs in the nest of a nearby pair of the same species or of another species.

Morten Strange
January 2008
(Images from “A Passion for Birds” courtesy of Ong Kiem Sian)

Arrival of the Jambu Fruit Dove


Jambu Fruit Dove (Ptilinopus jambu) is an uncommon non-breeding visitor. Apparently it visits any time of the year. Thus when a pair was sighted on 19th December 2007, news spread wide and fast. Photographers and birders flocked to the Japanese Garden in Jurong, the former to record the event and the latter to gawk at the birds.

The strikingly handsome male with a crimson face and a pink patch on the upper breast is shown above. The less striking but just as attractive female, shown below, is about to swallow the salam (Syzygium polyanthum) fruit. In the crop the flesh is stripped off and the seed sent on its way to be ejected at the other end of the bird.


This year’s arrival of the doves coincided with the fruiting of the salam tree, a common roadside tree whose fruits are a favourite with birds. A single male bird was sighted last year in another such fruiting tree nearby. The fruits of the salam obviously provide much needed sustenance to these birds after their long flight.

Normally found in forests, this fruit eating dove congregate in the crowns of small trees making up the lower to middle storey. Their appearance in a park thus allowed photographers excellent opportunities to get their perfect shots.

Input by YC, Meng and Melinda Chan; images by Meng.

26 Responses

  1. kris

    I just found a young dollarbird in the garden.. It seems to have left the nest too early and cannot fly yet. How am i to keep and feed it for a few days untill it can fly.???

  2. Iwan

    We have a small pond in our garden surrounded by trees and steep bedrock. The other day we saw a heron flying over and attempting to land – I guess to try to eat our small stock of fish. We managed to frighten it away before it landed, and have since installed trip wires around the pond in order to dissuade the bird. The amount of shelter around the pond means that a heron would have to land practically vertically. Does anyone know whether these birds have the agility to hover and land in this way, or do they always need a “glidepath” in order to land successfully?

  3. Khng Eu Meng

    Today, at the former Bidadari Cemetery, there was a buzz about a sighting of a Grey Nightjar (Caprimulgus jotaka). I heard some birders say this nightjar isn’t commonly seen in Singapore. After some hunting, we spotted it asleep on a tree branch, some 15 m above ground. This was rather interesting as my previous encounters with nightjars have been on either terra firma or on low branches.

    Is this perching so high up the tree normal or is it unusual? I have posted a photo of it on my Facebook Timeline: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151125012234135&set=a.108191464134.96538.617499134&type=1&theater

  4. Jess

    Bird Sanctuary At Former Bidadari Cementry

    1)Which is the best spot in Bidadari cemetery for bird watch?

    2)Where this bird usually resident at?

    3)What are some of the rare bird species that can be found at Bidadari?

    4)Where is the particular hot spot for the hornbills, eagles, kingfishers and some of the rare migratory bird?

    5)Which part of Bidadari are richest in it wildlife?

    6)Can you name me the 59 migratory bird species found?

  5. YC

    Why not search the website using the word ‘Bidadari’ to obtain the information you need. There should be sufficient info in past postings to satisfy you.

  6. Firdaus Razak

    Hai, I just want to ask did anybody had an experience bring bird from oversea via MasKargo? Did the bird will stress at high altitude?

  7. Chung Wah

    Hi, I am new to bird photography! Could anyone advise a good pair of binoculars to get for this hobby?

  8. Geam Liang

    I ‘acquired’ a female Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot 5 days ago – was in a public place when the bird flew overhead hit the wall and dropped right in front of me dazed. I picked it up, it appeared unhurt but could not sustain it’s flight. I have since constructed a fairly large ‘cage’ for it, about 4ft x 2fx x 2ft and placed it there last night. I temporarily placed her in a normal bird cage until I had completed the build.
    From what I have read up, it’s a fruit, seed and insect feeder and also nectar, flower buds. It’s doing as well as it can on bananas, papaya, jack-fruit (didn’t touch the grape) and seeds (black and white sunflower and other smaller ones). It loves to bathe so I’ve gotten it a tray and from what I read it’s important to keep things clean as it easily succumbs to infection.
    Does anyone else have any useful experience and sharing on it’s upkeep? I suspect this bird is an escapee – as far as I can read up, it’s not common, if at all, found in Georgetown, Penang where I am. I’m also not optimistic that it can survive if I were to set it free – assuming it can sustain it’s flight and not go crashing down and if there were dogs/cats around that would be the end of it.
    I can attach some pictures but not sure how to do this…

  9. Lee Chiu San

    The blue-crowned hanging parrot, even though very closely related to the lovebirds, is a nectar feeder. You would raise it the way you raise a lorikeet – which is a messy process. And because you are mixing batches of food for just one little bird, whereas I used to do it for about half a dozen pigeon-sized lorikeets each morning, I don’t know how you are going to get the portions down to manageable sizes. Anyway, here goes, with my recipe for feeding big lories. You can adjust the proportions down accordingly for your little bird.

    The staple diet would be a couple of slices of soft fruit (papaya, apple, grapes, even though I am surprised that you said the bird would not eat any) and a mixture of cooked rice sweetened with nectar mix.

    How to make nectar mix? Go to a pharmacy and get a can of food for invalids or infants. I use Complan, but I am sure any good baby formula would do. I usually make up enough to fill a beer mug, but there is no way you need that amount for a day’s feeding. If in doubt, make the mixture thinner, not thicker. Birds cannot digest baby formula that is too thick. If it is too thin, they simply have to consume more to get the required amount of energy. Then to this mug, add half a teaspoonful of rose syrup. Also stir in about a cup of cooked rice, well mashed up.

    In the case of your bird, I suggest that you pour this lot into an ice-cube tray, freeze the mixture, and defrost one cube to feed it each day.

    Now, you said that this bird eats sunflower seeds. This is most unusual for a blue-crowned hanging parrot. Are you sure that this is actually the species you have? Could it be possible that you have actually got a pet lovebird that escaped? There are so many different artificially-created breeds of lovebirds in so many colours that you might have been mistaken.

    If you actually have a lovebird, feeding is much simpler. Just go to the nearest pet shop, buy a packet of budgerigar or cockatiel seed of a reputable international brand, and offer it to the bird. You can supplement this with a couple of slices of fruit each day, and that will be all. Plus of course fresh water and a piece of cuttlefish bone to nibble on.

  10. Lee Chiu San

    About nectar feeding birds. I forgot to add that feeding nectar is messy, and it goes rancid very quickly in our tropical weather. Feeding containers have to be removed and thoroughly cleaned at the end of each day. The birds also splatter the mixture and wipe their beaks on perches and the bars of the cage. All my lories and lorikeets used to be housed in outdoor aviaries which were hosed down daily.

    If Geam Liang does not think the bird will survive if released, I really hope that it is a case of mistaken identity, and that you have a lovebird, rather than a blue-crowned hanging parrot. In our part of the world, all available lovebirds are domestically bred, take to captivity readily, and are easy to feed with commercially available seed mixtures. Yes, and being domestic pets, they would not survive if released.

  11. Geam Liang

    Thank you Chiu San for your inputs. Thus far, bananas and papayas work well. I’m not sure why it did not take to grapes – will try again. Am I supposed to peel it? I didn’t the last time, basically skewered a couple of grapes to a satay stick and positioned it as I did for the sliced and skinned papaya and peeled bananas.
    I have yet to try rice and certainly not nectar but will try out your concoction – have half a mind to go to a pet shop to see if they carry nectar for birds. The ice-cube freeze method is a good one, will try that. I might be mistaken on the sunflower seeds… not touched but it did eat the much smaller roundish, mixed colored seeds. Will remove the sunflower seeds.
    I’m sure it’s a female blue crowned hanging parrot.. it sleeps like a bat every night.

  12. Lee Chiu San

    When feeding local birds which are unfamiliar with imported fruits such as grapes, it helps to split the fruits to expose the edible parts. As to your remark that the bird sleeps hanging upside down like a bat, yes, that is the way blue-crowned hanging parrots sleep.

  13. Geam Liang

    Thanks… I need to think like a bird – yup. She has probably not seen a grape much less know that it’s edible, unless the previous owner has fed her with grapes… even then… Today she’s done pretty well making the most of the banana and all of the papaya plus quite a bit of seeds. Will try the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup.
    Will regular honey do instead of rose syrup?

  14. Lee Chiu San

    About making nectar to feed birds. Most aviculturalists do not use honey for two reasons: 1. It is expensive and does not seem to give any added benefits. 2. Honey is made by bees, and the composition varies wildly. Some honeys are also known to cause fungal infection in birds.

    If you do not want to buy a huge bottle of rose syrup just for one tiny bird, there are cheaper alternatives. The first is plain table sugar, though most don’t seem to like it very much.

    What many birds will accept quite readily as a sweetener is condensed milk – the type with sugar that coffee shop owners use.

    Many, many birds have a sweet tooth (or should I say sweet beak?) Besides the usual suspects of lories, lorikeets, sunbirds and hummingbirds, for whom it is an essential part of the diet, nectar mixture is readily consumed by mynahs, leafbirds, fairy bluebirds, barbets, doves, parrots of all kinds, and a whole host of other species.

  15. Geam Liang

    I tried the condensed mild, placed in in a small bottle cap.. only the ants showed interest. Am I supposed to dilute it? I didn’t =( I took you advice and refrained from honey. Have yet to find Rose Syrup from the shelves of TESCO… will try to mix the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup/sugar syrup this week…

  16. David Thackray

    Can anyone help me identify a bird I saw in Singapore last week. Size of a smakll dove or thrush. Dark metallic back. Grey breast with red throat, chest.

  17. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers

  18. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers.

  19. Mahadevi Bhuti

    One of best souce for the bird watcher’s enjoying knowledge about ornithology

  20. Martin Nyffeler (PhD)

    Dear Sir / Dear Madame,

    I am a Senior Lecturer in Zoology at a University in Switzerland and I urgently need to get in touch with photographer Chan Yoke Meng, who takes beautiful photographs of birds near Singapore. Would you please mail me the email address of this photographer!


  21. Wee Ming

    Hello Besgroup,

    Trust this email finds you well. We chance upon your photograph on your website and found the amazing image of the Laced Woodpecker and durians. We would like to explore the possibility of getting permission to use them for a new Bird Park in Singapore.

    Spacelogic is a company based in Singapore and we have been contracted by Mandai Park Development to carry out design and build works relating to the exhibition interpretive displays in this new Bird Park.

    Some background of the new Mandai Bird Park project; it will build upon the legacy of the Jurong Bird Park – https://www.wrs.com.sg/en/jurong-bird-park.html by retaining and building upon a world-reference bird collection and creating a place of colour and joy for all visitors. The new Bird Park will have a world-reference ornithological collection displayed in a highly immersive way with large walk-through habitats. To enhance visitors’ experience with storyline and narrative of the bird park, transition spaces are added to display exhibits that provide a varied type of fun, intuitive, interactive and educational experiences for all visitors. One of the habitats features the Laced Woodpecker on a flora panel It is in this flora panel that we are seeking your permission to feature the Laced Woodpecker. We are looking to use the first image on the link here.
    Link can be found here: https://besgroup.org/2012/06/28/laced-woodpecker-and-durians/

    We would like to ask if this is something that we can explore further and if yes, how can we go about with putting through a formal permission request. Thank you so much for considering our request and we look forward to hearing from you.

    Warmest Regards,
    Wee Ming
    SPACElogic Pte Ltd

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