Reddish colugo mother (Galeopterus variegatus)

posted in: Mammals, mother and baby | 0

Colugos are difficult to capture as they camouflage themselves high on the trees and glide away to escape dangers. They have not been studied in captivity and gender determination is a difficult exercise. Chasen and Kloss (1929) determined the genders by fur coloration.  Dzulhelmi and Abdullah (2009a) also use fur coloration and in addition uses the presence of a baby to determine gender. Lim (2004) is of the opinion that fur coloration should not be used to determine gender.

Recent DNA studies (Victor C. Mason et al) show that there may be many species instead of  the current  2 species.  The wide variation in fur coloration may be explained by the many species in different geographical locations.

Dzulhelmi and Abdullah (2009) used photographs of gliding colugos taken from ventral views to determine the genders. They looked for testes and presence of infant in the photographs. The field exercises were carried out in Bako National Park ( Sarawak ) in June 2011 and Pulau Langkawi (Kedah) in October 2011.  Dzulhelmi estimates the ratio of  male : female to be 1:4.

Jeremiah Loei visited the Costus trail in Lower Pierce Reservoir on 16 August 2021 and took a video of a red-furred colugo whom many thought was a male.  However, a baby was seen peeping out of the pouch. This is evidence that gender determination cannot be based on fur color alone.



Location map of Costus Trail



View of the boardwalk along the Costus Trail



View of the vegetation along the trail



Posted by K~LW



  1.  May 2013 Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 36(2): 123-126 by Dzulhelmi Nasir  of  Malaysian Palm oil Board & S.N.P Suriyanti

2.   10 August 2016: Science Advances vol. 2, no. 8, e1600633DOI: 10.1126/sciadv. 1600633

This post is a cooperative effort between Birds, Insects N Creatures Of Asia and BESG to bring the study of birds and their behaviour through photography and videography to a wider audience.


Australian Wood Duck

posted in: birds, Brood parasitism | 0

Australian Wood Duck

Maned Duck

(Chenonetta jubata)


Image 1

It is visually a small-billed, grey-bodied grazing duck, about 45-60cm in length.

The male has a rounded, dark chestnut head with a black mane down the back of its nape. Its eyes and bill are black, and legs and webbed feet are greyish in color. The nostril openings are roughly in the middle of the bill, in comparison to others like the Pacific Black Duck whose openings are near the base of their bill.

The lower neck, down to the chest is covered with a pattern of tightly packed white cotton blobs. Some of the adjacent blobs merge into each other. Peeping through in between the white blobs are the underlying brown feathers.

The female has a lighter brown color head with a brownish horizontal eye stripe, bordered by white above and below. Its neck and chest are similarly covered with the same pattern of  white cotton blobs. However in the female, this pattern continues into the belly region. From there it is white feathers all the way to the vent. The male has a dark brown belly and vent. The female’s bill and legs are also paler in color. (Images 1)


Image 2




In the male, the side of the belly and flanks are light grey in color. On closer inspection the grey is caused by an abundance of fine down-like feathers which are delicately lined. This results in a repetitive pattern of linear lines that can be so mesmerizing that an approaching predator may have a momentary, visually induced dizziness. This could give the duck a better chance of escape. (Images 2 and 3)

Image 3

Image 4

Both male and female have bold black stripes down their back, ending with black tail feathers. Both also have iridescent green speculum. (Images 4 and 5)


Image 5


                                                           Gallery of Wood Duck pictures

Image 6


Image 7


8   Sexual Dimorphism


Image 9 Head of male duck


Image 10 Preening. White eyelid over the closed eye can be seen.


Image 11 Head of female duck.


Image 12 Female duck showing light grey webbed foot.


Image 13 Female bird


Image 14 Left – juvenile male . Right – female



 Brood Parasitism


Image 15
Australian Wood Ducks usually lay about 8-11 eggs, often in tree hollows. However large brood sizes of up to 18 have been recorded.  Image 15 on the left (taken in Adelaide on 4th Nov. 2016) shows 15 ducklings in the family. This could be due to egg dumping. Female occasionally lays (dumps) some eggs in their neighbor’s nest (same species) before laying full clutch of eggs in their own nest.
Some other ducks even lay eggs in nests of other species, e.g. Redheads parasitize Canvasback ducks (Sorenson 1998).
The extreme form of this parasitism is when the female lays all her eggs in the nests of other species (Obligate brood Parasitism). One local example is the Asian Koel (Cuckoos).
Why would Australian Wood Ducks lay eggs in other ducks’ nests when they have their own nests? In other words, why foster out their children? Below are some possible reasons:-
  • It improves survival chances of the family genes. Not putting all eggs in one basket?
  • Dispersing the family genes.
  • Testing out family genes under different conditions (different parents, different environments).  If the ugly duckling does well, the family genes will spread, otherwise it will die out. This could possibly help speed up the Natural Selection of good genes.
  •  Reducing chances of inbreeding and its attendant genetic defects.

Post by K~LW


Heterochromia iridis in Ninox scutulata (brown hawk owl)

posted in: birds, eyes, heterochromia iridis | 0
Brown hawk-owl with heterochromatic iris. Photo courtesy of Art Toh and Peach Won


There is a perceptible air of excitement amongst the birding circles in Singapore caused by the appearance of a brown hawk-owl along Mandai Track 7.  Art Toh and Peach Won shared this picture of the bird with different coloured iris in each eye.


The same bird photographed by Trevor Teo


Trevor Teo shared the second picture of the same bird showing the typical yellow iris and the right eye showing an atypical orange-red coloured iris. This condition is known as heterochromia iridis. I had the opportunity to chat with Trevor and he shared that he waited about an hour on 15/8/2021, a Sunday afternoon, before the bird made its appearance. The bird jumped from tree to tree along the edge of the forest at Seletar Reservoir.  The photograph was snapped at about 3 pm and no flash was used. Trevor staked out the same place on 18/8/2021 but the bird did not show up for photoshoots.  Trevor’s friends saw the bird on subsequent days.


The hawk-owl in flight. The difference in iris colour is discernible. Photo courtesy of Trevor Teo


Trevor Teo’s photo shows the heterochromatic iris condition under a different light condition while in flight.


There is documentation of some species of birds displaying different coloured iris at different stages of their life.  Some ornithologists believe these changes are brought on by hormonal changes as the birds reach sexual maturity. Some birds exhibit different coloured iris because of its gender.


It is unknown what brought on this condition in this particular bird.  Perhaps it suffered an eye infection or injury. It could also have had some damages to its nerve or altered blood flow. Or it could be a genetic predisposition. To determine the cause, birders can keep up the snapshots of this oddity.


Posted by K~LW


BESG thanks Dato’ Dr Amar-Singh HSS & Datin Dr Swee-Im Lim for their expertise and generous help in this write-up.

This post is a cooperative effort between Birds, Insects N Creatures Of Asia and BESG to bring the study of birds and their behaviour through photography and videography to a wider audience.



Colugo mother and baby

posted in: Mammals, Waste | 0


Galeopterus variegatus, also known as Sunda Colugo and the Malayan Flying Lemur.  Recent DNA studies have revealed colugos to be relatives of primates.  They are secretive nocturnal animals, silent efficient gliders and feed on young leaves of trees. Young ones are born very immature like marsupials and stay very close to mother in an unsealed pouch formed by the folding of the mother’s patagium. Colugos are sometimes confused with flying squirrels.  Colugos have skin membranes joined to cheeks, fore and hind limbs and the total length of the tail.  Flying squirrels have skin membranes that are joined to fore and hind limbs.

The eyes face the front indicating 3D vision is deployed in the dark. All these features may have helped fan folklores of the spooky kind to the uninitiated.

Sim Chip Chye of BICA shared a photo showing the intimacy shared between mother and baby.  A second photo shows the positions of mother and baby while baby took a leak and the cleaning baby received. Below the photos is Sim Chip Chye’s description of the events captured in the photos.


Photo courtesy of Sim Chip Chye



Photo courtesy of Sim Chip Chye


I had a very interesting encounter with a parent Colugo and its offspring! I have had quite a few encounters prior and they were all vertically clung on a tree’s trunk; but this late afternoon’s encounter saw the young Colugo being cradled much like in a hammock by its mother! The two were sharing some very close moments with both the young and the parent licking each other continuously for quite some time. Suddenly, the mummy released both her forelimbs to hang upside down and the juvenile was clinging on to mummy’s tummy with its forelimbs! I thought it might fall and before long, the juvenile folded its rear patagium and for the first time, I can see the tail bone of a colugo! Its external genitourinary organ was revealed and it started to urinate…. and mummy was there to make sure junior did not wet any part of its membrane… it licked its groin clean and occasionally was observed to lick some urine too! When junior was done, mummy stretched her forelimbs onto the branch and junior was in her cradle again!


Recorded at Hindhede Nature Park on 10 August 2021 just before 1700 hrs

Sim Chip Chye


This post is a cooperative effort between Birds, Insects N Creatures Of Asia and BESG to bring the study of birds and their behaviour through photography and videography to a wider audience.

Message from BESGroup

posted in: Message | 0

BESGroup was conceptualised in 2005 by Prof. YC Wee and built up steadily through hard work and a constant flow of contributions from citizen scientists of all walks of life. Ordinary folks had observed and documented events in nature using state-of-the-art equipment of the time. Inter and intra-specific relationships were noticed and observed in specific space and time. Feeding relationships, courtship behaviours, nest building, rearing and protection of young, friendship between different species and coping mechanisms in all areas of life are commonly observed. Thus, it is appropriate and relevant to document plants, fungi, algae and non-birds living on land and in water. Many contributors are eager to share their documentations on a digital platform to influence public awareness and for educational purposes. The joy of witnessing a wondrous natural event is complete only with the act of sharing this observation with other people.

BESGroup pictures and videos, appropriate for all age groups, are a handy assistant to teachers in the classrooms. Classrooms are fitted for usage of online materials. The website is very user friendly and children can be taught to explore the website in their own time. The young arm chair naturalists learn of their natural heritage in a fun and safe way and may grow up with the desire to do their part to preserve this for posterity. Older students can refer to the posts here to augment their understanding of animal behaviours and ecological principles.
Some contributors are introspective and philosophical, some admire the ingenuity and efficient use of natural resources and some see the comical side of things. All these perspectives make the contributions greater than the whole.

The rapid advancement in phone cameras makes anyone in possession of a smartphone an instant documentarian. Only the hesitation to document a natural event stands in the way of the common man. Even children can be encouraged to document nature from a young age.
The next generation of bird watchers will be highly skilled in computer applications. In the near future, perhaps these archival materials will be put through analytics programmes to reveal new patterns of behaviours and relationships.

Borne out of great vision and foresight of the Founder, and the altruism of many early contributors, this website will stay relevant and serve many more citizen scientists for a long time. The mini documentaries on this website have been viewed 34 million times around the world since 2005. The counting will continue with the support and contributions of young and old. You can submit your mini documentaries to:


Northern red-billed hornbill (Tockus erythrorhynchus)

posted in: birds, Feeding-plants, Hornbills | 0

Tockus erythrorhynchus

This hornbill is also known as African red-billed hornbill or Northern red-billed hornbill. It is endemic to Africa and populate sub-saharan areas. This subspecies is found in Ethiopia, Somalia and southward to Tanzania. The species is not listed as a threatened species. It is comparatively smaller than the Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) that has been commonly sighted  in Singapore. T. erythrorhynchus is about half the size of A. albirostris.

Tockus spp lack a casque on the head which is very obvious in Anthracoceros spp.

This hornbill is characterised by white spots on its covert feathers and a red bill.



May be an image of bird and nature

Photo courtesy of Johnny Wee. Red-billed hornbill perched on a Lannea coromandelica tree. East Coast Park. 
4 August 2021


This specimen is probably a female bird as there is an absence of yellow or pinkish feather in the throat area. The small black patch at the base of the bill also hints at its gender. The black patch is larger in male birds.



May be an image of bird and nature

Photo courtesy of Johnny Wee.  Red-billed hornbill feeding on Lannea coromandelica fruits. East Coast Park.
 4 August 2021


The natural diet of this species consists of insects like beetles, grasshoppers, termites, larvae; vertebrates like lizards, young birds, small mammals and plant food like fruits and grain. This bird is probably an escapee that has found its niche at East Coast Park. It has amazing survival instincts and has been able to adapt its diet to the local environment.  The bird often looks for insects on the ground. BICA members have also posted many beautiful shots of this bird in varying poses and ingesting varying types of food.



May be an image of bird and nature

Photo courtesy of Johnny Wee. Red-billed hornbill in descending flight. East Coast Park. 4 August 2021


In its natural environment these birds often congregate on the ground in search of food.

Who will this bird eventually buddy up with?


My profuse thanks to Ali Ibrahim, formerly with NParks, for help in identifying Lannea coromandelica.

This post is a cooperative effort between Birds, Insects N Creatures Of Asia and BESG to bring the study of birds and their behaviour through photography and videography to a wider audience.



1.  Handbook of the birds of the world vol. 6 Mousebirds to Hornbills edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliot and

Jordi Sargata copyright 2001 BirdLife International

2. Tropical trees and shrubs: A selection for Urban Plantings by Wee YC copyright 2003



6 August 2021

Slaty-breasted Rail ( Lewinia striatus )Pics

posted in: birds, Rails | 0

Article by K-LW

4 August 2021


I found a Slaty-breasted Rail walking around my garden one early morning in May 2021.

It is a shy bird of swampy, grassy, watery habitat, usually solitary and silent.

Adults are about 10 inches long with chestnut color forehead, crown, nape and hind neck.( image 12 )

Chin and front of neck are whitish. Fine bluish grey feathers cover side of face (lore, malar, aural region), side of neck and breast, down to upper parts of belly. The rest of body (back, wings, side, belly) are covered by blackish feathers with light brownish filly fringes. This blackish feathery landscape is broken up by white spots and short, narrow, curvy white bands. ( Image 3,4,5,6,10,13,15, )

The beak is longish and mostly red-pink. The upper beak consists of a greyish dorsal plate and two pinkish side plates, each of which has an elongated nostril opening in their proximal portion. Tip of beak is greyish in color. ( Image 10,11 )

The vent is rufous in color. ( Image 3,4 )

The sharp pointed tail is short and stumpy. ( Image 9,14 )

It has powerful long legs (dark bluish-grey) and relatively large feet with four long toes ending in short, sharp curved claws. This adaptation  is suited for walking in the soft mud of swampy ground. The toes are arranged in the anisodactyl format, one toe (hallux) points backward and three point forward. Legs and toes are covered in a bluish grey tough skin  known as the podotheca. This skin is mostly smooth except over the extensor aspect of joints where it is divided into overlapping scales arranged in reticulate pattern and over the flexor aspect it is divided into numerous small irregular scutellate plates . This bare skin most probably helps it to keep cool by acting as a heat radiator.

( Image 1,2,3,4,8,14 )

The eye has a black pupil .The iris is brown. There is a thin black rim around the eye (Image 12).

Voice is a loud, sharp ‘Keep’ given as a burst of 15-30 calls, becoming faster and louder then fades away . ( watch the video :- Call of Slaty-breasted Rail )


Image 1


Image 2


Image 3


Image 4


Image 5



                              Image 6



Image 8


Image 9


Image 10


Image 11


Image 12


Image 13


Image 14


Image 15


Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – nesting material

posted in: birds, Nesting | 0

“I had an opportunity today to watch Grey-breasted Spiderhunters (Arachnothera modesta modesta) collect nesting material. I had two extended observations, at the same site, of single birds each time.

“The bird(s) spent much time looking for and collecting the fluffy heads of seeds that are wind dispersed. These seeds have soft, fluffy cotton-like parachutes – silky hairs that arise directly from the top of the seed to help it be wind-blown far from the tree (above).

“These seeds often get caught in trees, (like the Bridella tomentosa above) or bushes and the bird(s) were harvesting them to line the nest; at times resorting to acrobatic skills to gain access.

“They also obtained these silky hairs from other seeds (above). I also saw spider webs being collected. I could not be sure if both partners were involved or only the same bird was doing the work.

Dato Dr Amar-Singh HSS (Dato’ Dr)
Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Location: Kledang-Sayong Forest Reserve, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
Habitat: Primary forest
Date: 25th February 2021
Equipment: Equipment: Nikon D500 SLR with Nikon AF-S Nikkor 500mm f/5.6E PF ED VR, handheld with Rode VideoMic Pro Plus Shotgun Microphone

25 Responses

  1. kris

    I just found a young dollarbird in the garden.. It seems to have left the nest too early and cannot fly yet. How am i to keep and feed it for a few days untill it can fly.???

  2. Iwan

    We have a small pond in our garden surrounded by trees and steep bedrock. The other day we saw a heron flying over and attempting to land – I guess to try to eat our small stock of fish. We managed to frighten it away before it landed, and have since installed trip wires around the pond in order to dissuade the bird. The amount of shelter around the pond means that a heron would have to land practically vertically. Does anyone know whether these birds have the agility to hover and land in this way, or do they always need a “glidepath” in order to land successfully?

  3. Khng Eu Meng

    Today, at the former Bidadari Cemetery, there was a buzz about a sighting of a Grey Nightjar (Caprimulgus jotaka). I heard some birders say this nightjar isn’t commonly seen in Singapore. After some hunting, we spotted it asleep on a tree branch, some 15 m above ground. This was rather interesting as my previous encounters with nightjars have been on either terra firma or on low branches.

    Is this perching so high up the tree normal or is it unusual? I have posted a photo of it on my Facebook Timeline:

  4. Jess

    Bird Sanctuary At Former Bidadari Cementry

    1)Which is the best spot in Bidadari cemetery for bird watch?

    2)Where this bird usually resident at?

    3)What are some of the rare bird species that can be found at Bidadari?

    4)Where is the particular hot spot for the hornbills, eagles, kingfishers and some of the rare migratory bird?

    5)Which part of Bidadari are richest in it wildlife?

    6)Can you name me the 59 migratory bird species found?

  5. YC

    Why not search the website using the word ‘Bidadari’ to obtain the information you need. There should be sufficient info in past postings to satisfy you.

  6. Firdaus Razak

    Hai, I just want to ask did anybody had an experience bring bird from oversea via MasKargo? Did the bird will stress at high altitude?

  7. Chung Wah

    Hi, I am new to bird photography! Could anyone advise a good pair of binoculars to get for this hobby?

  8. Geam Liang

    I ‘acquired’ a female Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot 5 days ago – was in a public place when the bird flew overhead hit the wall and dropped right in front of me dazed. I picked it up, it appeared unhurt but could not sustain it’s flight. I have since constructed a fairly large ‘cage’ for it, about 4ft x 2fx x 2ft and placed it there last night. I temporarily placed her in a normal bird cage until I had completed the build.
    From what I have read up, it’s a fruit, seed and insect feeder and also nectar, flower buds. It’s doing as well as it can on bananas, papaya, jack-fruit (didn’t touch the grape) and seeds (black and white sunflower and other smaller ones). It loves to bathe so I’ve gotten it a tray and from what I read it’s important to keep things clean as it easily succumbs to infection.
    Does anyone else have any useful experience and sharing on it’s upkeep? I suspect this bird is an escapee – as far as I can read up, it’s not common, if at all, found in Georgetown, Penang where I am. I’m also not optimistic that it can survive if I were to set it free – assuming it can sustain it’s flight and not go crashing down and if there were dogs/cats around that would be the end of it.
    I can attach some pictures but not sure how to do this…

  9. Lee Chiu San

    The blue-crowned hanging parrot, even though very closely related to the lovebirds, is a nectar feeder. You would raise it the way you raise a lorikeet – which is a messy process. And because you are mixing batches of food for just one little bird, whereas I used to do it for about half a dozen pigeon-sized lorikeets each morning, I don’t know how you are going to get the portions down to manageable sizes. Anyway, here goes, with my recipe for feeding big lories. You can adjust the proportions down accordingly for your little bird.

    The staple diet would be a couple of slices of soft fruit (papaya, apple, grapes, even though I am surprised that you said the bird would not eat any) and a mixture of cooked rice sweetened with nectar mix.

    How to make nectar mix? Go to a pharmacy and get a can of food for invalids or infants. I use Complan, but I am sure any good baby formula would do. I usually make up enough to fill a beer mug, but there is no way you need that amount for a day’s feeding. If in doubt, make the mixture thinner, not thicker. Birds cannot digest baby formula that is too thick. If it is too thin, they simply have to consume more to get the required amount of energy. Then to this mug, add half a teaspoonful of rose syrup. Also stir in about a cup of cooked rice, well mashed up.

    In the case of your bird, I suggest that you pour this lot into an ice-cube tray, freeze the mixture, and defrost one cube to feed it each day.

    Now, you said that this bird eats sunflower seeds. This is most unusual for a blue-crowned hanging parrot. Are you sure that this is actually the species you have? Could it be possible that you have actually got a pet lovebird that escaped? There are so many different artificially-created breeds of lovebirds in so many colours that you might have been mistaken.

    If you actually have a lovebird, feeding is much simpler. Just go to the nearest pet shop, buy a packet of budgerigar or cockatiel seed of a reputable international brand, and offer it to the bird. You can supplement this with a couple of slices of fruit each day, and that will be all. Plus of course fresh water and a piece of cuttlefish bone to nibble on.

  10. Lee Chiu San

    About nectar feeding birds. I forgot to add that feeding nectar is messy, and it goes rancid very quickly in our tropical weather. Feeding containers have to be removed and thoroughly cleaned at the end of each day. The birds also splatter the mixture and wipe their beaks on perches and the bars of the cage. All my lories and lorikeets used to be housed in outdoor aviaries which were hosed down daily.

    If Geam Liang does not think the bird will survive if released, I really hope that it is a case of mistaken identity, and that you have a lovebird, rather than a blue-crowned hanging parrot. In our part of the world, all available lovebirds are domestically bred, take to captivity readily, and are easy to feed with commercially available seed mixtures. Yes, and being domestic pets, they would not survive if released.

  11. Geam Liang

    Thank you Chiu San for your inputs. Thus far, bananas and papayas work well. I’m not sure why it did not take to grapes – will try again. Am I supposed to peel it? I didn’t the last time, basically skewered a couple of grapes to a satay stick and positioned it as I did for the sliced and skinned papaya and peeled bananas.
    I have yet to try rice and certainly not nectar but will try out your concoction – have half a mind to go to a pet shop to see if they carry nectar for birds. The ice-cube freeze method is a good one, will try that. I might be mistaken on the sunflower seeds… not touched but it did eat the much smaller roundish, mixed colored seeds. Will remove the sunflower seeds.
    I’m sure it’s a female blue crowned hanging parrot.. it sleeps like a bat every night.

  12. Lee Chiu San

    When feeding local birds which are unfamiliar with imported fruits such as grapes, it helps to split the fruits to expose the edible parts. As to your remark that the bird sleeps hanging upside down like a bat, yes, that is the way blue-crowned hanging parrots sleep.

  13. Geam Liang

    Thanks… I need to think like a bird – yup. She has probably not seen a grape much less know that it’s edible, unless the previous owner has fed her with grapes… even then… Today she’s done pretty well making the most of the banana and all of the papaya plus quite a bit of seeds. Will try the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup.
    Will regular honey do instead of rose syrup?

  14. Lee Chiu San

    About making nectar to feed birds. Most aviculturalists do not use honey for two reasons: 1. It is expensive and does not seem to give any added benefits. 2. Honey is made by bees, and the composition varies wildly. Some honeys are also known to cause fungal infection in birds.

    If you do not want to buy a huge bottle of rose syrup just for one tiny bird, there are cheaper alternatives. The first is plain table sugar, though most don’t seem to like it very much.

    What many birds will accept quite readily as a sweetener is condensed milk – the type with sugar that coffee shop owners use.

    Many, many birds have a sweet tooth (or should I say sweet beak?) Besides the usual suspects of lories, lorikeets, sunbirds and hummingbirds, for whom it is an essential part of the diet, nectar mixture is readily consumed by mynahs, leafbirds, fairy bluebirds, barbets, doves, parrots of all kinds, and a whole host of other species.

  15. Geam Liang

    I tried the condensed mild, placed in in a small bottle cap.. only the ants showed interest. Am I supposed to dilute it? I didn’t =( I took you advice and refrained from honey. Have yet to find Rose Syrup from the shelves of TESCO… will try to mix the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup/sugar syrup this week…

  16. David Thackray

    Can anyone help me identify a bird I saw in Singapore last week. Size of a smakll dove or thrush. Dark metallic back. Grey breast with red throat, chest.

  17. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers

  18. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers.

  19. Mahadevi Bhuti

    One of best souce for the bird watcher’s enjoying knowledge about ornithology

  20. Martin Nyffeler (PhD)

    Dear Sir / Dear Madame,

    I am a Senior Lecturer in Zoology at a University in Switzerland and I urgently need to get in touch with photographer Chan Yoke Meng, who takes beautiful photographs of birds near Singapore. Would you please mail me the email address of this photographer!


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