Straw-headed bulbul (Pycnonotus zeylanicus) at Rifle Range Road

posted in: bird | 0

Straw-headed bulbuls, Pycnonotus zeylanicus, are vulnerable passerines of the Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Sumatra and Borneo. Measuring 28 – 29 cm, they are rather large birds and their unique feather patterns make them stand out.  Their melodious water gurgling songs attract trappers who sell them as cage-birds. Their populations are dwindling and concerted conservation efforts are required to prevent the extinction of this attractive song bird.

Sexes are similar although females may be slightly smaller. Primarily frugivorous taking figs, mistletoe fruits, wild ‘cherries’ also known as ‘buah cherry’ in Malaysia and Singapore (Muntingia calabara),fruits of the Ptychosperma macarthurii palm; nectar and flower buds. They are known to take spiders, beetles, bees, caterpillars, stick-insects, snails and small vertebrates like lizards. Young nestlings are fed quite exclusively a diet of protein-rich soft-bodied insects and fruits added to the diet gradually as the little birds get ready to fledge.  The fledglings are fed by their parents for up to a month.

Video by Dr. Leslie Kuek, taken on 16-5-2022, along Rifle Range Road. A pair of straw-headed bulbuls foraging on a Madagascar almond tree (Terminalia mantaly ‘Tricolor’).

References: 

  1. Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol. 10 © 1996
  2. Possible association between plantain squirrels and straw-headed bulbul foraging https://besgroup.org/2014/11/26/straw-headed-bulbuls-foraging/
  3. Straw-headed bulbul feeding chick https://besgroup.org/2013/07/15/straw-headed-bulbul-feeding-chick/
  4. Poaching of straw-headed bulbuls https://besgroup.org/2006/12/11/poaching-of-straw-headed-bulbul-111206/

Dusky Langur eating leaves

posted in: Dusky Langur, Feeding-plants, Mammals | 0

Bee Choo Strange shared a video of this Dusky Langur (Trachypithecus obscurus) eating leaves, taken in February 2020 at Bukit Tinggi in Peninsular Malaysia. She finds the way it eats the leaves rather interesting.

The Dusky Langur is considered threatened due to destruction of its habitat and poaching. This langur is also known as dusky leaf monkey, spectacled langur or spectacled leaf monkey. It feeds on leaves and fruits. Inhabitant of Myanmar, Southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and seen occasionally in Singapore.

 

Can anyone identify the plant this langur is feeding on?

Silver-eared Mesia – chattering calls

posted in: birds, Vocalisation | 0

This is an older call recording of a social group of Silver-eared Mesias (Leiothrix argentauris tahanensis), sitting in a ‘thicket’ and chattering away. The chattering calls were done simultaneously by a few birds (2-3) at the same time. They were fast calls and occurred at 15-20 notes per second and of varying intensity. They sounded like distress calls but I could not appreciate any threat.

Sonogram and waveform is shown below.

Call recording here: https://www.xeno-canto.org/506935

The Xeno-canto currently restricts recordings of this species due to bird trapping (can upload but not hear them).

 

Amar-Singh HSS (Dato’ Dr) – Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Location: 1,700m ASL, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia

Habitat: Primary montane forest

Date: 14th March 2019

Silver-eared Mesia  – food source

posted in: birds, Feeding-plants | 0

No visit to the Cameron Highlands is complete without watching the Silver-eared Mesia (Leiothrix argentauris tahanensis). Food for such a common bird is not well documented. Wells 2007 says “no animal prey as yet identified” for this species locally. They are a common participant of mixed foraging party (bird wave) and often call out while in a mixed group. Much of the foraging I have seen them do is scrambling about in the undergrowth, searching the vegetation. Hence I suspect prey that is taken is not easily seen. I have observed more episodes of fruit feeding than animal prey. The above image shows a female feeding on pink-white fruit on a large tree (unidentified plant).

Previous food sources I have observed include:

  1. Taking orange-red berries off a bush (unidentified plant).
  2. Fledged juveniles was fed purple berries (unidentified plant); did not seen any animal prey fed to young.
  3. Unidentified orange berries (a favourite of many species, not a ficus)
  4. Feeding on a large green caterpillar.
  5. Feeding on worm/larvae.
  6. Insect prey, possibly a spider.

 

Amar-Singh HSS (Dato’ Dr) – Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Location: 1,700m ASL, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia

Habitat: Primary montane forest

Date: 12th November 2019

Equipment: Equipment: Nikon D500 SLR with Nikon AF-S Nikkor 500mm f/5.6E PF ED VR, handheld with Rode VideoMic Pro Plus Shotgun Microphone

 

 

Yellow Bittern – courtship behaviour

posted in: birds, Courtship-Mating | 0

I had an opportunity to observe part of the courtship ritual of Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis) today. In 2012 I had posted an observation about one type of courtship behaviour (Display Type I, Lansdown & Rajanathan 1993); repeated crest-raising displays with neck/throat puffed out. This occurred to one-to-one, i.e. one male to one female. I suspect this ‘Display Type I’ is the late stage of the courtship when a mate has been chosen.

Three birds in the circular flight chase.

Today I observed a number of Yellow Bitterns chasing each other or ‘Circular Flight’ (Display Type II, Lansdown & Rajanathan 1993). On one occurrence there were 5; but for all the other times only 3 or 4 were involved. One bird would launch out from its perch in the tall reeds and fly over the large ex-mining pool. A second, third and fourth bird would follow. They would fly in a large circle, following each other, and return to the reeds (not the same exact site). There were occasions where a single bird would come out to do this circle flight. No calls or altercations were observed during this behaviour. At the reed resting site I did see one bird approach another but it was rebuffed. I watched this happen 6 times over 20 minutes before I moved on (they were still at it). From the distance I located, I could not be sure if it was males chasing females (as mentioned by Lansdown & Rajanathan 1993), or the ratio of males to females. I saw no ‘song-post’ described by these two observers.

References:

  1. Wells, D.R. (1999) The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 1 (Non-Passerines). Christopher Helm, London
  2. Lansdown, R.V. and Rajanathan R. (1993) Some Aspects of the Ecology of Ixobrychus Bitterns Nesting in Malaysia Ricefields. Colonial Waterbirds. Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 98-101. Published by Waterbird Society.
  3. IUCN-SCC Heron Specialist Group (Heron Conservation: Black-crowned Night-Heron; available here: https://www.heronconservation.org/herons-of-the-world/list-of-herons/black-crowned-night-heron) also offered some information on

 

Amar-Singh HSS (Dato’ Dr) – Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Location: Outskirts of Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Habitat: Wetlands

Date: 22nd June 2020

Equipment: Equipment: Nikon D500 SLR with Nikon AF-S Nikkor 500mm f/5.6E PF ED VR, handheld with Rode VideoMic Pro Plus Shotgun Microphone

Birds Feeding on the flowers of Torch Ginger, also known as Bunga Kantan

posted in: birds, Feeding-plants | 0

The Etlingera elatior, commonly known as the Torch Ginger or Bunga Kantan, is an important plant in Southeast Asia and has spectacular flowers. The plant is cultivated for the flowers to be used as herbs, spices in dishes (rojak, laksa, kerabu) and as decorative cut-flowers. It is now widely grown in many countries.

The nectar requires a long-billed bird species and, as such, it suits Spiderhunters and Sunbirds. There is a lovely early discussion on this by Classen (1987) which describes the flower structure and bird bill/tongue required to reach the deep placed nectar.

Over time I have seen a number of birds that feed on the nectar of these flowers; as I am sure many other bird watchers would have observed as well. It is a favourite of Spiderhunters and Sunbirds and I have often observed competitive feeding at flowering sites of the Etlingera elatior. Yesterday (9th May 2022) I had an opportunity to observe 7-10 spiderhunters feeding on this plant at a location where it was flowering extensively, at the fringe of a forest reserve. Images show the Spectacled Spiderhunter and an immature Grey-breasted Spiderhunter.

Bird seen personally feeding on the nectar of the Etlingera elatior:

Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra

Spectacled Spiderhunter Arachnothera flavigaster

Grey-breasted Spiderhunter Arachnothera modesta

Brown-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis

 

A limited online image and word search showed some other birds feeding on this flower (I have ignored here birds seen on the white variety of this flower).

Birds observed by other individuals feeding on the nectar of the Etlingera elatior:

Streaked Spiderhunter Arachnothera magna (see references in Amar-Singh HSS 2020)

Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja (Wee 2009)

Purple Sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus (Aswani et al 2013)

Purple-rumped Sunbird Leptocoma zeylonica (Aswani et al 2013)

Cameroon Sunbird Cyanomitra oritis (Janeček et al 2020)

Seychelles Sunbird Cinnyris dussumieri (CanStockPhoto)

Magnificent Sunbird Aethopyga magnifica (Ponds5)

Olive-backed Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis (Ponds5)

 

There are a number of images online showing different Hummingbird species feeding on this flower. Aswani et al. (2013) also mention the Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis as a nectar feeder on this plant but I would like more data on this.

I would not be surprised if many more Spiderhunter and Sunbird species feed on his plant, and further observation and reports are required.

References

  1. Regine Classen (1987). Morphological Adaptations for Bird Pollination in Nicolaia elatior. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 40(1). <https://www.nparks.gov.sg/sbg/research/publications/gardens-bulletin-singapore/-/media/sbg/gardens-bulletin/4-4-40-1-05-y1987-v40p1-gbs-pg-37.pdf>.
  2. Amar-Singh HSS. (2020). Diet and Foraging Behaviour of the Streaked Spiderhunter (Arachnothera magna). BirdingASIA 34: 114–120.
  3. Wee YC (2009). A male Crimson Sunbird and the torch ginger flowers. Bird Ecology Study Group. <https://besgroup.org/2009/01/09/a-male-crimson-sunbird-and-the-torch-ginger-flowers/>.
  4. Aswani K., M. Sabu and K. P. Smisha (2013). Reproductive Biology of Etlingera elatior(Jack.) R. M. Sm. Ornamental Torch Ginger. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences.
  5. Janeček, Chmel, Gómez, et al (2020). Ecological fitting is a sufficient driver of tight interactions between sunbirds and ornithophilous plants. Ecology and Evolution. Wiley Online Library. <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ece3.5942>.
  6. CanStockPhoto – Seychelles Sunbird <https://www.canstockphoto.com/a-seychelles-sunbird-cinnyris-58050349.html>.
  7. Ponds5 – Magnificent Sunbird <https://www.pond5.com/stock-footage/item/158515350-magnificent-sunbird-feeding-torch-ginger-plant-cebu-philippi>.
  8. Ponds5 – Olive-backed Sunbird <https://www.pond5.com/stock-footage/item/158514599-olive-backed-sunbird-cinnyris-jugularis-cebu-philippines>.

 

Dato’ Dr Amar-Singh HSS – Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar feeding

posted in: birds, Feeding-plants | 0

Observed a female Brown-throated Sunbird (Anthreptes malacensis malacensis) feeding on the nectar of the Cocos nucifera (Coconut) – one of the many food (nectar) sources these birds have. The bird made a number of calls while feeding.

Amar-Singh HSS (Dato’ Dr) – Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Habitat: Fruit farming and secondary growth at city fringe

Date: 24th December 2020

Equipment: Nikon D500 SLR with Nikon AF-S Nikkor 500mm f/5.6E PF ED VR, handheld with Rode VideoMic Pro Plus Shotgun Microphone

Mountain Tailorbird – in images

posted in: birds, Miscellaneous | 0

The following images of the Mountain Tailorbird (Orthotomus cucullatus malayanus) were captured by Dato’ Dr Amar-Singh HSS, an avid birdwatcher based in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. On 12th November 2019, Amar travelled about 90 km to the state of Pahang to visit Cameron Highlands, a highland resort 1,700m above sea level. There, he took a long walk along the trail running through the primary jungle. As always, he had his equipment consisting of a Nikon D500 SLR with Nikon AF-S Nikkor 500mm f/5.6E PF ED VR, accompanied by a handheld with Rode VideoMic Pro Plus Shotgun Microphone to record bird calls.

The following 2 images are from his earlier visit.

.

The following 4 images are from his later visit.

 

 

 

 

 

Square-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo – calls

posted in: birds, Vocalisation | 0

I saw a Square-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo (Surniculus lugubris) on 15th April 2022 at the Kledang Saiong Forest Reserve, Ipoh, Perak calling out, perched high up at the top of the canopy. The classical male advertising calls of “pwi, pwi, pwi” in bursts of 5-7 notes (Wells 1999). If you listen careful you will hear a softer, similar answering call; possibly another male. The calls went on for quite a while.

Call recording here: https://xeno-canto.org/upload/success/722433

 

Dato’ Dr Amar-Singh HSS

Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Stink bug, Paracritheus trimaculatus

Soh Kam Yung shared with BESGroup a photograph of a Stink Bug, Paracritheus trimaculatus, spotted at Tampines Eco Green on 16 April 2022. It was laying eggs. Those white spots on the back look like a face.

On iNaturalist [ https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/111633708 ]

Photo by Soh Kam Yung. An adult Paracritheus trimaculatus laying eggs on a leaf.

 

 

Family                         : Pentatomidae (shield bugs or stink bugs)

Interesting snippets    : The family name describes the antennae which are divided into 5 segments. They are phytophagous and the three large, white spots make them stand out from other shield bugs. Although they are not rare, not much is known about them.

 

26 Responses

  1. kris

    I just found a young dollarbird in the garden.. It seems to have left the nest too early and cannot fly yet. How am i to keep and feed it for a few days untill it can fly.???

  2. Iwan

    We have a small pond in our garden surrounded by trees and steep bedrock. The other day we saw a heron flying over and attempting to land – I guess to try to eat our small stock of fish. We managed to frighten it away before it landed, and have since installed trip wires around the pond in order to dissuade the bird. The amount of shelter around the pond means that a heron would have to land practically vertically. Does anyone know whether these birds have the agility to hover and land in this way, or do they always need a “glidepath” in order to land successfully?

  3. Khng Eu Meng

    Today, at the former Bidadari Cemetery, there was a buzz about a sighting of a Grey Nightjar (Caprimulgus jotaka). I heard some birders say this nightjar isn’t commonly seen in Singapore. After some hunting, we spotted it asleep on a tree branch, some 15 m above ground. This was rather interesting as my previous encounters with nightjars have been on either terra firma or on low branches.

    Is this perching so high up the tree normal or is it unusual? I have posted a photo of it on my Facebook Timeline: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151125012234135&set=a.108191464134.96538.617499134&type=1&theater

  4. Jess

    Bird Sanctuary At Former Bidadari Cementry

    1)Which is the best spot in Bidadari cemetery for bird watch?

    2)Where this bird usually resident at?

    3)What are some of the rare bird species that can be found at Bidadari?

    4)Where is the particular hot spot for the hornbills, eagles, kingfishers and some of the rare migratory bird?

    5)Which part of Bidadari are richest in it wildlife?

    6)Can you name me the 59 migratory bird species found?

  5. YC

    Why not search the website using the word ‘Bidadari’ to obtain the information you need. There should be sufficient info in past postings to satisfy you.

  6. Firdaus Razak

    Hai, I just want to ask did anybody had an experience bring bird from oversea via MasKargo? Did the bird will stress at high altitude?

  7. Chung Wah

    Hi, I am new to bird photography! Could anyone advise a good pair of binoculars to get for this hobby?

  8. Geam Liang

    I ‘acquired’ a female Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot 5 days ago – was in a public place when the bird flew overhead hit the wall and dropped right in front of me dazed. I picked it up, it appeared unhurt but could not sustain it’s flight. I have since constructed a fairly large ‘cage’ for it, about 4ft x 2fx x 2ft and placed it there last night. I temporarily placed her in a normal bird cage until I had completed the build.
    From what I have read up, it’s a fruit, seed and insect feeder and also nectar, flower buds. It’s doing as well as it can on bananas, papaya, jack-fruit (didn’t touch the grape) and seeds (black and white sunflower and other smaller ones). It loves to bathe so I’ve gotten it a tray and from what I read it’s important to keep things clean as it easily succumbs to infection.
    Does anyone else have any useful experience and sharing on it’s upkeep? I suspect this bird is an escapee – as far as I can read up, it’s not common, if at all, found in Georgetown, Penang where I am. I’m also not optimistic that it can survive if I were to set it free – assuming it can sustain it’s flight and not go crashing down and if there were dogs/cats around that would be the end of it.
    I can attach some pictures but not sure how to do this…
    thanks.

  9. Lee Chiu San

    The blue-crowned hanging parrot, even though very closely related to the lovebirds, is a nectar feeder. You would raise it the way you raise a lorikeet – which is a messy process. And because you are mixing batches of food for just one little bird, whereas I used to do it for about half a dozen pigeon-sized lorikeets each morning, I don’t know how you are going to get the portions down to manageable sizes. Anyway, here goes, with my recipe for feeding big lories. You can adjust the proportions down accordingly for your little bird.

    The staple diet would be a couple of slices of soft fruit (papaya, apple, grapes, even though I am surprised that you said the bird would not eat any) and a mixture of cooked rice sweetened with nectar mix.

    How to make nectar mix? Go to a pharmacy and get a can of food for invalids or infants. I use Complan, but I am sure any good baby formula would do. I usually make up enough to fill a beer mug, but there is no way you need that amount for a day’s feeding. If in doubt, make the mixture thinner, not thicker. Birds cannot digest baby formula that is too thick. If it is too thin, they simply have to consume more to get the required amount of energy. Then to this mug, add half a teaspoonful of rose syrup. Also stir in about a cup of cooked rice, well mashed up.

    In the case of your bird, I suggest that you pour this lot into an ice-cube tray, freeze the mixture, and defrost one cube to feed it each day.

    Now, you said that this bird eats sunflower seeds. This is most unusual for a blue-crowned hanging parrot. Are you sure that this is actually the species you have? Could it be possible that you have actually got a pet lovebird that escaped? There are so many different artificially-created breeds of lovebirds in so many colours that you might have been mistaken.

    If you actually have a lovebird, feeding is much simpler. Just go to the nearest pet shop, buy a packet of budgerigar or cockatiel seed of a reputable international brand, and offer it to the bird. You can supplement this with a couple of slices of fruit each day, and that will be all. Plus of course fresh water and a piece of cuttlefish bone to nibble on.

  10. Lee Chiu San

    About nectar feeding birds. I forgot to add that feeding nectar is messy, and it goes rancid very quickly in our tropical weather. Feeding containers have to be removed and thoroughly cleaned at the end of each day. The birds also splatter the mixture and wipe their beaks on perches and the bars of the cage. All my lories and lorikeets used to be housed in outdoor aviaries which were hosed down daily.

    If Geam Liang does not think the bird will survive if released, I really hope that it is a case of mistaken identity, and that you have a lovebird, rather than a blue-crowned hanging parrot. In our part of the world, all available lovebirds are domestically bred, take to captivity readily, and are easy to feed with commercially available seed mixtures. Yes, and being domestic pets, they would not survive if released.

  11. Geam Liang

    Thank you Chiu San for your inputs. Thus far, bananas and papayas work well. I’m not sure why it did not take to grapes – will try again. Am I supposed to peel it? I didn’t the last time, basically skewered a couple of grapes to a satay stick and positioned it as I did for the sliced and skinned papaya and peeled bananas.
    I have yet to try rice and certainly not nectar but will try out your concoction – have half a mind to go to a pet shop to see if they carry nectar for birds. The ice-cube freeze method is a good one, will try that. I might be mistaken on the sunflower seeds… not touched but it did eat the much smaller roundish, mixed colored seeds. Will remove the sunflower seeds.
    I’m sure it’s a female blue crowned hanging parrot.. it sleeps like a bat every night.

  12. Lee Chiu San

    When feeding local birds which are unfamiliar with imported fruits such as grapes, it helps to split the fruits to expose the edible parts. As to your remark that the bird sleeps hanging upside down like a bat, yes, that is the way blue-crowned hanging parrots sleep.

  13. Geam Liang

    Thanks… I need to think like a bird – yup. She has probably not seen a grape much less know that it’s edible, unless the previous owner has fed her with grapes… even then… Today she’s done pretty well making the most of the banana and all of the papaya plus quite a bit of seeds. Will try the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup.
    Will regular honey do instead of rose syrup?
    Thanks.

  14. Lee Chiu San

    About making nectar to feed birds. Most aviculturalists do not use honey for two reasons: 1. It is expensive and does not seem to give any added benefits. 2. Honey is made by bees, and the composition varies wildly. Some honeys are also known to cause fungal infection in birds.

    If you do not want to buy a huge bottle of rose syrup just for one tiny bird, there are cheaper alternatives. The first is plain table sugar, though most don’t seem to like it very much.

    What many birds will accept quite readily as a sweetener is condensed milk – the type with sugar that coffee shop owners use.

    Many, many birds have a sweet tooth (or should I say sweet beak?) Besides the usual suspects of lories, lorikeets, sunbirds and hummingbirds, for whom it is an essential part of the diet, nectar mixture is readily consumed by mynahs, leafbirds, fairy bluebirds, barbets, doves, parrots of all kinds, and a whole host of other species.

  15. Geam Liang

    I tried the condensed mild, placed in in a small bottle cap.. only the ants showed interest. Am I supposed to dilute it? I didn’t =( I took you advice and refrained from honey. Have yet to find Rose Syrup from the shelves of TESCO… will try to mix the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup/sugar syrup this week…

  16. David Thackray

    Can anyone help me identify a bird I saw in Singapore last week. Size of a smakll dove or thrush. Dark metallic back. Grey breast with red throat, chest.

  17. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers

  18. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers.

  19. Mahadevi Bhuti

    One of best souce for the bird watcher’s enjoying knowledge about ornithology

  20. Martin Nyffeler (PhD)

    Dear Sir / Dear Madame,

    I am a Senior Lecturer in Zoology at a University in Switzerland and I urgently need to get in touch with photographer Chan Yoke Meng, who takes beautiful photographs of birds near Singapore. Would you please mail me the email address of this photographer!

    Thanks,
    Martin

  21. Wee Ming

    Hello Besgroup,

    Trust this email finds you well. We chance upon your photograph on your website and found the amazing image of the Laced Woodpecker and durians. We would like to explore the possibility of getting permission to use them for a new Bird Park in Singapore.

    Spacelogic is a company based in Singapore and we have been contracted by Mandai Park Development to carry out design and build works relating to the exhibition interpretive displays in this new Bird Park.

    Some background of the new Mandai Bird Park project; it will build upon the legacy of the Jurong Bird Park – https://www.wrs.com.sg/en/jurong-bird-park.html by retaining and building upon a world-reference bird collection and creating a place of colour and joy for all visitors. The new Bird Park will have a world-reference ornithological collection displayed in a highly immersive way with large walk-through habitats. To enhance visitors’ experience with storyline and narrative of the bird park, transition spaces are added to display exhibits that provide a varied type of fun, intuitive, interactive and educational experiences for all visitors. One of the habitats features the Laced Woodpecker on a flora panel It is in this flora panel that we are seeking your permission to feature the Laced Woodpecker. We are looking to use the first image on the link here.
    Link can be found here: https://besgroup.org/2012/06/28/laced-woodpecker-and-durians/

    We would like to ask if this is something that we can explore further and if yes, how can we go about with putting through a formal permission request. Thank you so much for considering our request and we look forward to hearing from you.

    Warmest Regards,
    Wee Ming
    SPACElogic Pte Ltd

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