Close-up of a Crested Serpent-eagle

posted in: birds, Morphology-Develop., Raptors | 0

Our neighbourhood Crested Serpent-eagle (Spilornis cheela malayensis) that we hear calling out while foraging most days around 10.30-11.30am. Today was resting almost at eye level around 9.30am (pre-feed) and allowed me some close images. One wing feather was displaced (above).

Some close-ups of face showing nictitating membrane (above) and the magnificent feet (below).


Amar-Singh HSS (Dato’ Dr)

Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

21st January 2020


Location: Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Habitat: fringe of primary jungle

Equipment: Equipment: Nikon D500 SLR with Nikon AF-S Nikkor 500mm f/5.6E PF ED VR, handheld with Rode VideoMic Pro Plus Shotgun Microphone


Nesting of spotted doves (Spilopelia chinensis) Part 4: Parent-chicks interactions

In this video by Wei Siong and Wenyi, both parent birds continue to feed and groom the chicks. Chicks are starting to groom themselves and flap their wings more strongly. The feathers on the wings have grown longer and feathers have started appearing on other parts of their bodies.  There are more chick-initiated interactions with the parents. The chicks are sometimes left by themselves. The nest is still very neat, tidy and clean.

White-breasted Waterhen – behaviour series

The following series on the different behaviours of a White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus phoenicurus) are based on observations by Dato’ Dr. Amar-Singh HSS made on different days around an urban habitat in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

Waterhen on a wooden fence.

On 29th April 2020, the above White-breasted Waterhen hopped up on this wooden fence in front of me and allowed close observation and images. It was feeding on insects on the foliage.

Waterhen feeding on insects.

Waterhen foraging in a pond.

On the early morning of 2nd May, a waterhen was seen foraging in the centre of a pond covered (coated) with Lemna minor (Common or Lesser Duckweed). It was sieving through the aquatic plants looking for snail prey, some were tiny as seen in the image below .

Waterhen with snail prey.

Waterhen with nesting material.

On 21st May a waterhen was seen with a nesting material. It’s short tail often flicked when nervous.

Waterhen flicking its short tail.

An older video and DSLR images of a White-breasted Waterhen (Uwak) making less commonly heard calls. Many of us would be familiar with the ‘classical’, calls these birds make – a cacophony of loud, raucous notes that are answered by the mate – often sounding like its local name “uwak-wak-wak-wak”.

Sonogram of waterhen’s call.

The bird also has larger repertoire of other calls. One that I hear infrequently is the one shown in the video and sonogram (above). They are discrete, repetitive calls made every 1.2 seconds (16 calls in 19 seconds) and last 0.2-0.3 of a second. Few authors describe them. Craig Robson (Field Guide to Birds of SE Asia 2002) alludes to them as contact calls and describes them as “pwik”. Bird that made calls in Post 2 seen below.

The waterhen that made the call.

Video recording here:

Edited audio recording here:


Amar-Singh HSS (Dato’ Dr)

Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

April-May 2020


Equipment: Nikon D500 SLR with Nikon AF-S 105mm f/2.8G VR IF-ED or Nikon D500 SLR with Tamron SP 150-600mm f/5-6.3 Di VC USD, handheld with Rode VideoMic Pro Plus Shotgun Microphone



Silkie Chicken

posted in: birds, Blue, Color, ear lobes | 0


Silkie chicken

Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson is also known as Chinese Silky Chicken or Black bone chicken


Photo 1


Silkie Chicken

Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson

Silkie chicken is also known as the Chinese silky chicken. It is a very old breed, originating in China and later spreading to Europe, then America, mainly as a novelty.

It is most popular as a pet because of its completely white fluffy plumage. Its hair-like feather feels silky soft, hence its name. Feathers also extend to its legs and feet. It is described as a very quiet, gentle, friendly, calm and docile bird. All  these make it very suitable as a pet. Life span is about 7 to 9 years.

For Birders, this is an example of a Leucistic bird. It has a completely white plumage and black eyes. However, no one is excited over it because it is not the odd one out, it is the norm, the whole flock is white.

In spite of the above, this is a good example of a Leucistic bird that is not caused by a lack of black melanin pigments. The feathers are white because of a defect in the transport of melanin from skin melanocytes to the feathers. In fact, it has so much melanin that it is called black chicken. Its whole skin beneath the white feathers is black, including its feet, beak and comb. The excess melanin has even gone inward, causing the bones and muscles to becomes black. All the internal organs like heart, intestines and connective tissues are also black.

The only part of its body that is not black is its ear lobe, which is curiously blue. So far no blue biological pigment has been found in the skin or feather of birds. It is also very rare amongst animals, only found in two species of fish. But there are no shortages of examples of blue colored birds, like the beautiful blue peacock. The reason for this contradiction is that the blue color in birds is a structural color. This means that the blue color is the result of light interacting with microscopic/nanoscopic physical structures in the feather (extra dermal) or in the skin (either within dermal cells, or in the extracellular space of the dermis e.g. hexagonally arranged collagen fibers). When the blue segment of visible white light hits the collagen bundles the blue light is reflected more intensely because of constructive wave interference. Light of other wavelengths (e.g. red, yellow) are reflected out of phase because their wavelengths do not fit the spacing within the collagen bundle. This destructive wave interference results in the annihilation of red, yellow etc. color, leaving only blue. Any light rays not hitting the collagen bundles pass through and is absorbed by the underlying black melanin layer. This makes the blue color more intense and prominent.

Photo 2.


Photo 3.


Photo 4. Blue ear lobe is visible.


Photo 5.


Silkie’s feathers look and feel like soft fur. This is due to the absence or non-functioning of the barbules in its feathers. The vane feather has a central keratin shaft with a broad flat web on either side known as the vane. The vane is made up of paired keratin barbs growing out from the central shaft at an angle e.g. 45º, on a single plane. The barbs in turn have keratin branches (barbules) growing out from them in similar fashion. The opposing barbules then meet each other at an angle, producing a crisscross pattern. The barbules from the distal side of a barb usually have hook-lets along its length. Barbules from the proximal side of a barb usually have saw-tooth undersides.  Each upward pointing barbule will grip tightly onto several downward pointing saw-tooth barbules. Thus, each barb is securely bound to its two neighbors. This construction results in an effective flight feather. If the barbules and their hooks become defective then the whole fixture unravels. The feathers become hair-like silky feathers and are unable to support chicken flight. However, they provide good heat insulation.


Silkie  has five toes on each foot, in contrast to four toes in most birds. The fifth toe is usually smaller and less functional. The wings are still in the standard tridactyly  (three digit) arrangement.

Silkie lays cream-colored eggs, about 100 per year. This is less than half what an average layer-hen does. The reason is because Silkie has a very strong mothering instinct. It gets broody frequently and then egg production is halted. This is also the reason why the Broody tendency is selectively bred out of egg production hens. Since Silkie hens accept eggs from other hens (even of other species), the farmers exploit the silkie to raise the offspring of other birds.

Another economic importance of Silkie is in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Silkie, a black bone chicken, is highly regarded in TCM for its potency in improving immunity and general wellbeing. This is especially so in China and South East Asia. Recently some western scientific studies have shown high levels of Carnosine in Silkie muscle cells. This is more than twice the level found in other breeds of chicken. Carnosine is an imidazole dipeptide with strong antioxidant ability. It scavenges oxygen-free radicals, thus protecting mitochondrial membranes from damage.

Nowadays, many colors have been bred into Silkie chickens: black, orange, lavender, red and cuckoo pattern.

Photo 6.


Photo 7.


Photo 8.


Photo 9.


Photo 10.


Photo 11.


Photo 12.


Photo 13. Also known as partridge Silkie.


Article by Wong Kais


All Silkie chicken subjects were kindly provided by Thomas Hee (Singapore).

Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker – Juvenile to Adult Progression

posted in: birds, Morphology-Develop. | 0

I saw this young (immature) self-feeding Flowerpecker at the forest edge in Ipoh on 22nd July 2021 (below). It had a white malar stripe developing with some yellow in the breast. There was a thick orange bill tipped with black. There was no orange or scarlet patch on the crown (had more images to see this well).

This is a juvenile/immature Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker (Prionochilus percussus ignicapilla). At present it is hard to say a male or female.

Having seen many juveniles over the years I thought I would extract a few images and show the progression from a young juvenile to adulthood in the composite image (below):

Birds 1 and 2 are a younger and older juvenile.

One of the first signs of change is the bill tip becoming black (No 2) with some yellow in the breast & an early malar flash. By this time they are self-feeding.

Bird 3 is an immature female – it had an orange crown patch, a darker bill and more yellow in the breast.

Bird 4 is an immature male – it had a darker bill, deeper yellow in the breast and blue appearing above.

Bird 5 is an adult female.

Bird 6 is an adult male.


Amar-Singh HSS (Dato’ Dr)
Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

22 July 2021


Location: Dasyueshan National Forest Recreation Area, Taichung City County, Taiwan

Habitat: 2400 meter ASL, forested region.

Equipment: Nikon D500 SLR with Tamron SP 150-600mm f/5-6.3 Di VC USD, handheld with Rode VideoMic Pro Plus Shotgun Microphone.


Amar’s observations… many new to ornithology… but why so many?

posted in: Travel-Personality | 0

Those who frequent this site must surely be aware that there has been an unusual flood of posts by Dato’ Dr. Amar-Singh HSS or Amar as he prefers to be addressed, during these few months.

Dato’ Dr. Amar Singh HSS with Datin Dr. Swee-Im Lim during a recent trip to Sikkim.

Amar’s first contribution was way back in August 2009 on the Raffles’ Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus chlorophaeus chlorophaeus) building a nest HERE. From there on his contributions poured in regularly until December 2019 when BESG discontinued postings HERE. After 19 months of inactivity, Teo Lee Wei and K came forward and volunteered to take over the running of the website. The site was resurrected in July 2021 and we began posting again HERE. There were limited contributions then as earlier contributors were yet to be aware of the revival of this website.

However, we had plentiful contributions from Amar in storage. Since we stopped posting, Amar continued with his regular birding forays. At the same time, he continued to send me his observations. By the time the BESG website was restarted, I had accumulated maybe more than a hundred observations, or is there more?

Although the website is now under new management, I have taken the responsibility to post all of Amar’s contributions. This is the least I can do. These are valuable observations and many are new to ornithology. After all, observations not recorded and shared, cannot be taken as contributing to the advancement of our ornithological knowledge.

As of now, 32 have been posted – either one, two or even three per day. And there will be many more to come. So please bear with us if you continue to see more and more of Amar’s observations during the coming months. In addition to the backlog, Amar is still sending his current observations.

Amar is a bird-watcher ahead of his time. At a time when birdwatchers moved around with only a pair of binoculars, he had a camera to record bird behaviour. When cameras became fashionable, Amar had already added a videocam to his birding equipment, not to mention a shotgun microphone for audio recordings. He is still going out regularly, sending us his observations, for after all, bird watching is in his blood.


YC Wee

19 September. 2021


Changeable hawk-eagle (Nisaetus cirrhatus) bitten by Paradise Tree Snake ( Chrysopelea paradisi) in a life and death duel Part 2

Tan Ghim Pin was at Pasir Ris Park and documented an eagle bitten in the right eye by a paradise tree snake. However, the eagle was unharmed.  The snake managed to slither away and the eagle searched for the snake amongst the bushes nearby but was unable to find it.  The eagle then flew up to a tree and left the area.

The picture gallery below documents the sequence of events before and after the bird was bitten by the snake.

Eagle with snake at lower right of picture before the attack.
Snake bit eagle once on the lower part of the body.
Snake rearing its head up for another attack.
Eagle was attacked in the eye.
The attack viewed from another angle.
Eagle’s right leg releasing its grip on the snake.
The snake slithered away after the attack.
Eagle stood up and watched the snake make its get away.
Eagle searching high and low for the snake. The eye is unharmed.
The eagle still wants its lunch.
Could the snake be here?
Not amongst the bougainvillea?
Eagle still keeping a sharp eye out for the snake amongst the bougainvillea thorns.
Eagle gave up its search for the snake and flew up to this tree, then flew off to another area.


All photos © Tan Ghim Pin.

This post is a cooperative effort between Birds, Insects N Creatures Of Asia and BESG to bring the study of birds and their behaviour through photography and videography to a wider audience.

Nesting of spotted doves (Spilopelia chinensis) Part 3: From nest to chicks

posted in: birds, Feeding chicks, Nesting | 0

In Part 3 of Spotted dove nesting, Wei Siong documented the parents feeding the very hungry chicks which have grown bigger.  The chicks are able to obtain crop milk from parent bird simultaneously.  Chicks have grown stronger and are beginning to stand on their legs and flap their tiny wings. The parents continue to tidy the nest and shield the chicks from the hot afternoon sun.

Towards the later part of the video, the mother bird adopted a defensive stance and the intruder appeared in view.  Mother and chick predator stared at each other.  All the while the chicks were tugged safely under her body. The tense situation when the predator flew off.

Chestnut-naped Forktail – female

posted in: birds, Species | 0

The Chestnut-naped Forktail (Enicurus ruficapillus) is not an easy bird to see (very shy) or images are in dark stream locations.

Above is a female seen foraging along the river bank. Will often raise or lower her tail and use the white tail-flash at the observer.

A video-gif of this behaviour is shown here:


Amar-Singh HSS (Dato’ Dr)

Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

30th January 2020


Location: Kledang-Sayong Forest Reserve, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

Habitat: Trail along primary jungle

Equipment: Equipment: Nikon D500 SLR with Nikon AF-S Nikkor 500mm f/5.6E PF ED VR, handheld with Rode VideoMic Pro Plus Shotgun Microphone


Nesting of spotted doves (Spilopelia chinensis) Part 2: From nest to chicks

posted in: birds, Feeding chicks, Nesting | 0

Below is Chua Wei Siong and Wenyi’s continuing documentation of the chicks’ development. The parent birds can be seen shading the chicks from the hot sun beating down on them, tidying the nest, grooming the chicks and feeding the chicks by regurgitating food from the crop. The parents engage in calls and a dance while changing shift.


26 Responses

  1. kris

    I just found a young dollarbird in the garden.. It seems to have left the nest too early and cannot fly yet. How am i to keep and feed it for a few days untill it can fly.???

  2. Iwan

    We have a small pond in our garden surrounded by trees and steep bedrock. The other day we saw a heron flying over and attempting to land – I guess to try to eat our small stock of fish. We managed to frighten it away before it landed, and have since installed trip wires around the pond in order to dissuade the bird. The amount of shelter around the pond means that a heron would have to land practically vertically. Does anyone know whether these birds have the agility to hover and land in this way, or do they always need a “glidepath” in order to land successfully?

  3. Khng Eu Meng

    Today, at the former Bidadari Cemetery, there was a buzz about a sighting of a Grey Nightjar (Caprimulgus jotaka). I heard some birders say this nightjar isn’t commonly seen in Singapore. After some hunting, we spotted it asleep on a tree branch, some 15 m above ground. This was rather interesting as my previous encounters with nightjars have been on either terra firma or on low branches.

    Is this perching so high up the tree normal or is it unusual? I have posted a photo of it on my Facebook Timeline:

  4. Jess

    Bird Sanctuary At Former Bidadari Cementry

    1)Which is the best spot in Bidadari cemetery for bird watch?

    2)Where this bird usually resident at?

    3)What are some of the rare bird species that can be found at Bidadari?

    4)Where is the particular hot spot for the hornbills, eagles, kingfishers and some of the rare migratory bird?

    5)Which part of Bidadari are richest in it wildlife?

    6)Can you name me the 59 migratory bird species found?

  5. YC

    Why not search the website using the word ‘Bidadari’ to obtain the information you need. There should be sufficient info in past postings to satisfy you.

  6. Firdaus Razak

    Hai, I just want to ask did anybody had an experience bring bird from oversea via MasKargo? Did the bird will stress at high altitude?

  7. Chung Wah

    Hi, I am new to bird photography! Could anyone advise a good pair of binoculars to get for this hobby?

  8. Geam Liang

    I ‘acquired’ a female Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot 5 days ago – was in a public place when the bird flew overhead hit the wall and dropped right in front of me dazed. I picked it up, it appeared unhurt but could not sustain it’s flight. I have since constructed a fairly large ‘cage’ for it, about 4ft x 2fx x 2ft and placed it there last night. I temporarily placed her in a normal bird cage until I had completed the build.
    From what I have read up, it’s a fruit, seed and insect feeder and also nectar, flower buds. It’s doing as well as it can on bananas, papaya, jack-fruit (didn’t touch the grape) and seeds (black and white sunflower and other smaller ones). It loves to bathe so I’ve gotten it a tray and from what I read it’s important to keep things clean as it easily succumbs to infection.
    Does anyone else have any useful experience and sharing on it’s upkeep? I suspect this bird is an escapee – as far as I can read up, it’s not common, if at all, found in Georgetown, Penang where I am. I’m also not optimistic that it can survive if I were to set it free – assuming it can sustain it’s flight and not go crashing down and if there were dogs/cats around that would be the end of it.
    I can attach some pictures but not sure how to do this…

  9. Lee Chiu San

    The blue-crowned hanging parrot, even though very closely related to the lovebirds, is a nectar feeder. You would raise it the way you raise a lorikeet – which is a messy process. And because you are mixing batches of food for just one little bird, whereas I used to do it for about half a dozen pigeon-sized lorikeets each morning, I don’t know how you are going to get the portions down to manageable sizes. Anyway, here goes, with my recipe for feeding big lories. You can adjust the proportions down accordingly for your little bird.

    The staple diet would be a couple of slices of soft fruit (papaya, apple, grapes, even though I am surprised that you said the bird would not eat any) and a mixture of cooked rice sweetened with nectar mix.

    How to make nectar mix? Go to a pharmacy and get a can of food for invalids or infants. I use Complan, but I am sure any good baby formula would do. I usually make up enough to fill a beer mug, but there is no way you need that amount for a day’s feeding. If in doubt, make the mixture thinner, not thicker. Birds cannot digest baby formula that is too thick. If it is too thin, they simply have to consume more to get the required amount of energy. Then to this mug, add half a teaspoonful of rose syrup. Also stir in about a cup of cooked rice, well mashed up.

    In the case of your bird, I suggest that you pour this lot into an ice-cube tray, freeze the mixture, and defrost one cube to feed it each day.

    Now, you said that this bird eats sunflower seeds. This is most unusual for a blue-crowned hanging parrot. Are you sure that this is actually the species you have? Could it be possible that you have actually got a pet lovebird that escaped? There are so many different artificially-created breeds of lovebirds in so many colours that you might have been mistaken.

    If you actually have a lovebird, feeding is much simpler. Just go to the nearest pet shop, buy a packet of budgerigar or cockatiel seed of a reputable international brand, and offer it to the bird. You can supplement this with a couple of slices of fruit each day, and that will be all. Plus of course fresh water and a piece of cuttlefish bone to nibble on.

  10. Lee Chiu San

    About nectar feeding birds. I forgot to add that feeding nectar is messy, and it goes rancid very quickly in our tropical weather. Feeding containers have to be removed and thoroughly cleaned at the end of each day. The birds also splatter the mixture and wipe their beaks on perches and the bars of the cage. All my lories and lorikeets used to be housed in outdoor aviaries which were hosed down daily.

    If Geam Liang does not think the bird will survive if released, I really hope that it is a case of mistaken identity, and that you have a lovebird, rather than a blue-crowned hanging parrot. In our part of the world, all available lovebirds are domestically bred, take to captivity readily, and are easy to feed with commercially available seed mixtures. Yes, and being domestic pets, they would not survive if released.

  11. Geam Liang

    Thank you Chiu San for your inputs. Thus far, bananas and papayas work well. I’m not sure why it did not take to grapes – will try again. Am I supposed to peel it? I didn’t the last time, basically skewered a couple of grapes to a satay stick and positioned it as I did for the sliced and skinned papaya and peeled bananas.
    I have yet to try rice and certainly not nectar but will try out your concoction – have half a mind to go to a pet shop to see if they carry nectar for birds. The ice-cube freeze method is a good one, will try that. I might be mistaken on the sunflower seeds… not touched but it did eat the much smaller roundish, mixed colored seeds. Will remove the sunflower seeds.
    I’m sure it’s a female blue crowned hanging parrot.. it sleeps like a bat every night.

  12. Lee Chiu San

    When feeding local birds which are unfamiliar with imported fruits such as grapes, it helps to split the fruits to expose the edible parts. As to your remark that the bird sleeps hanging upside down like a bat, yes, that is the way blue-crowned hanging parrots sleep.

  13. Geam Liang

    Thanks… I need to think like a bird – yup. She has probably not seen a grape much less know that it’s edible, unless the previous owner has fed her with grapes… even then… Today she’s done pretty well making the most of the banana and all of the papaya plus quite a bit of seeds. Will try the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup.
    Will regular honey do instead of rose syrup?

  14. Lee Chiu San

    About making nectar to feed birds. Most aviculturalists do not use honey for two reasons: 1. It is expensive and does not seem to give any added benefits. 2. Honey is made by bees, and the composition varies wildly. Some honeys are also known to cause fungal infection in birds.

    If you do not want to buy a huge bottle of rose syrup just for one tiny bird, there are cheaper alternatives. The first is plain table sugar, though most don’t seem to like it very much.

    What many birds will accept quite readily as a sweetener is condensed milk – the type with sugar that coffee shop owners use.

    Many, many birds have a sweet tooth (or should I say sweet beak?) Besides the usual suspects of lories, lorikeets, sunbirds and hummingbirds, for whom it is an essential part of the diet, nectar mixture is readily consumed by mynahs, leafbirds, fairy bluebirds, barbets, doves, parrots of all kinds, and a whole host of other species.

  15. Geam Liang

    I tried the condensed mild, placed in in a small bottle cap.. only the ants showed interest. Am I supposed to dilute it? I didn’t =( I took you advice and refrained from honey. Have yet to find Rose Syrup from the shelves of TESCO… will try to mix the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup/sugar syrup this week…

  16. David Thackray

    Can anyone help me identify a bird I saw in Singapore last week. Size of a smakll dove or thrush. Dark metallic back. Grey breast with red throat, chest.

  17. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers

  18. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers.

  19. Mahadevi Bhuti

    One of best souce for the bird watcher’s enjoying knowledge about ornithology

  20. Martin Nyffeler (PhD)

    Dear Sir / Dear Madame,

    I am a Senior Lecturer in Zoology at a University in Switzerland and I urgently need to get in touch with photographer Chan Yoke Meng, who takes beautiful photographs of birds near Singapore. Would you please mail me the email address of this photographer!


  21. Wee Ming

    Hello Besgroup,

    Trust this email finds you well. We chance upon your photograph on your website and found the amazing image of the Laced Woodpecker and durians. We would like to explore the possibility of getting permission to use them for a new Bird Park in Singapore.

    Spacelogic is a company based in Singapore and we have been contracted by Mandai Park Development to carry out design and build works relating to the exhibition interpretive displays in this new Bird Park.

    Some background of the new Mandai Bird Park project; it will build upon the legacy of the Jurong Bird Park – by retaining and building upon a world-reference bird collection and creating a place of colour and joy for all visitors. The new Bird Park will have a world-reference ornithological collection displayed in a highly immersive way with large walk-through habitats. To enhance visitors’ experience with storyline and narrative of the bird park, transition spaces are added to display exhibits that provide a varied type of fun, intuitive, interactive and educational experiences for all visitors. One of the habitats features the Laced Woodpecker on a flora panel It is in this flora panel that we are seeking your permission to feature the Laced Woodpecker. We are looking to use the first image on the link here.
    Link can be found here:

    We would like to ask if this is something that we can explore further and if yes, how can we go about with putting through a formal permission request. Thank you so much for considering our request and we look forward to hearing from you.

    Warmest Regards,
    Wee Ming
    SPACElogic Pte Ltd

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