Nesting of the Copper-throated Sunbird Leptocoma calcostetha

I observed two nesting episodes of the Copper-throated Sunbird Leptocoma calcostetha at the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, and would like to share my observations.

On 1 June 2023 I observed an adult female Copper-throated Sunbird building the early stages of a nest. The nest is anchored to a thin outer branch of a tall mangrove tree (see Image 1). What was unusual was the height of the nest. Wells (2007) describes nests as suspended at heights of 0·7–3·5 meters above ground from a thin mangrove branch or frond tip. Cheke and Mann (2001) describe nests as anchored “from less than 1 to about 2.5 meters above ground”. The nest I saw in construction was anchored 9-10 meters up.

Image 1: Unusually high nest building site of the Copper-throated Sunbird, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia, 1 June 2023

I only saw the female involved in nest building activities (see Image 2).

Image 2: Adult female Copper-throated Sunbird nest building, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia, 1 June 2023

New material was added every 3-5 minutes. The nest was constructed of dead plant material – strips of vegetation, dead leaves and twigs (see Image 3). Spider web was used to hold sections together. A considerable amount of ‘cotton’ from the Kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) had been added to the nest.

Image 3: Early nest composition, of the Copper-throated Sunbird, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia, 1 June 2023

I saw the adult male visit once but it was not for nest building but courtship. Both birds flew off together, singing loudly, and displaying. I have previously described their courtship behaviour (Amar-Singh HSS 2022).

The second nest I observed at the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve was on 24 February 2022. Some colleagues kindly alerted me to the presence of the nesting birds.

The second nest was more ‘conventional’ in height location; it was located about one meter above the ground. The nest was anchored to the stem of an Acrostichum fern and had a ‘tail’ (see Image 4).

Image 4: Adult female Copper-throated Sunbird keeping chicks warm in nest anchored to the stem of an Acrostichum fern, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia, 24 February 2022

The juveniles were being fed. The female would often, after feeding, enter the nest to keep the young warm; suggesting juveniles were still very young. From 7.50am to 10.00am, I observed at least 10 feeding episodes; 8 by female and 2 by male. On 2 occasions I saw faecal sacs removal by the female (see Image 5). I was uncertain if the faecal sacs were eaten by the adult.

Image 5: Adult female Copper-throated Sunbird removing fecal sac from nest, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia, 24 February 2022

The feeding items brought to the juvenile Copper-throated Sunbirds were difficult to ascertain, as the nest opening was turned away from observers. However, the adults spent much time checking tree foliage and bushes for small animal prey, presumably insects. I did not see any spiders taken but I did see spider webs on the bird’s beaks. I suspect that the birds collect nectar to feed the chicks. I observed the adult female move often from visiting the mangrove flowers directly to the nest. Bruguiera sexangula (commonly called the Upriver Orange Mangrove, or locally Tumu Putih) is used as a nectar source (see Image 6).

Image 6: Adult female Copper-throated Sunbird at Bruguiera sexangula, a possible nectar source for juveniles, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia, 24 February 2022

There were quite a number of other Copper-throated Sunbirds around at the same time and I was privileged to watch a courtship ritual and mating.

1. Wells, D.R. (2007). The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 2 (Passerines). Christopher Helm, London.
2. Robert A Cheke, Clive F Mann, Richard Allen (2001). Sunbirds: A Guide to the Sunbirds, Flowerpeckers, Spiderhunters and Sugarbirds of the World. Helm Identification Guides
3. Amar-Singh HSS (2022). Courtship Behaviour of the Copper-throated Sunbirds. Bird Ecology Study Group.


The Value of ‘Back-Mangrove’ to Bird Species

This short note is stimulated by discussion with Dr David Wells about ‘back-mangrove’ bird species after my recent post on mangrove mixed foraging parties.

I had noted that there was greater diversity of species at the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak compared to that found at mangrove sites located on the coast like Bagan Datuk, Perak. The Matang mangrove has an area of about 40,000ha and much is extended further inland on brackish rivers; it is the largest mangrove ecosystem in the peninsula.

David commented that some bird species are “essentially back-mangrove species” and they are “pushed out from the coast by bunding and clearance of that vegetation zone”. He went on to say that “In my estimation, back-mangroves are critical to at least half of all mangrove-recorded birds. Their loss is out of all proportion to their relative area.”

There are no clear definitions for ‘back-mangrove’. “In mangrove forests, 3 zones are recognized: the mangrove proper, the back-mangroves and the slightly or not saline soils.” “The back-mangrove is a bushy, discontinuous vegetation type with Avicennia here and there and few other halophytes species” (see Reference 2).

I have been reflecting on this, looking at my observations of birds at various mangrove sites and reading up on this issue. The government has replanted mangrove on the coast but only as a break or protection against possible tsunamis. This has meant a small fringe of mangrove forest on the coast with no sizable extension inland to form any ‘back-mangrove’ environment. This means that many back-mangrove species will not be able to thrive.

Take for example Tailorbirds.
At the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve in Perak I am easily able to see all four lowland Tailorbird species:

Image 1: Rufous-tailed Tailorbird Orthotomus sericeus, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak
Image 2: Ashy Tailorbird Orthotomus ruficeps, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak
Image 3: Dark-necked Tailorbird Orthotomus atrogularis, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak
Image 4: Common Tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak

Rufous-tailed and Ashy Tailorbirds tend to inhabit the interior of the mangrove forest while Dark-necked and Common Tailorbirds use the fringe and open spaces in the forest. But all are fairly easy to see and hear. This is unlike the coastal strips of mangrove forest where the predominant Tailorbird is the Ashy Tailorbird and the Rufous-tailed Tailorbird is not seen. The Common Tailorbird might be observed but more often in secondary growth or semi-urban settings.

Watson (1928) observes that “in terms of botanical richness, the back mangrove has the largest number of species and this richness is driven by the presence of many mangrove and coastal associates” (see Yang et al 2011).

Yang and colleagues (2011) describe the back mangrove situation for Singapore. They state “The lack of a functional back mangrove will severely affect plant species diversity (mangrove trees and all the other associated plants) and the availability of micro-habitats for fauna.” “Unfortunately, this type of mangrove habitat is most vulnerable to human activities because it can be easily converted into other forms that are more economically rewarding such as urban development or plantation agriculture”.

It would be prudent to advocate for undisturbed mangrove forests with large back mangrove sections. Or to push for mangrove replanting further inland/up-river. This may preserve the habitat for some species of birds.

1. Wells, D.R. (2007). The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 2 (Passerines). Christopher Helm, London.
2. Checklist of Mangrove species of South East India and Sri Lanka.
3. Watson, J. G. (1928). Mangrove forests of the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Fraser and Neave.
4. Yang Shufen, Rachel L. F. Lim, Sheue Chiou-Rong & Jean W. H. Yong (2011). The Current Status Of Mangrove Forests In Singapore. Proceedings of Nature Society, Singapore’s Conference on ‘Nature Conservation for a Sustainable Singapore’. 16th October 2011. Pg. 99–120.

Lowland Mangrove Mixed Foraging Party

I was watching a mangrove bird wave (mixed foraging party) when a Velvet-fronted Nuthatch Sitta frontalis saturatior flew down onto the board-walk in front of me. It then, inexplicably, proceeded to hop closer and closer until it was near my feet (Image 1).

Image 1: Adult Velvet-fronted Nuthatch, Matang Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia, 1st June 2023

It then flew up to join the family group of two adults and two dependent juveniles.
I saw an adult male acquire a spider (image 2) which was fed to a juvenile (image 3).

Image 2: Adult Velvet-fronted Nuthatch with spider prey, Matang Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia, 1st June 2023
Image 3: Adult Velvet-fronted Nuthatch feeding spider prey to juvenile, Matang Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia, 1st June 2023

The composition of the mangrove mixed foraging party were:
4 Velvet-fronted Nuthatches Sitta frontalis (2 juveniles, 2 adults)
2-3 Pin-striped Tit-Babblers Mixornis gularis
1 Malaysian Pied-Fantail Rhipidura javanica
2 Copper-throated Sunbirds Leptocoma calcostetha
1 Olive-winged Bulbul Pycnonotus plumosus
2 Common Ioras Aegithina tiphia
And others which included Tailorbirds.

There was 1 Common Flameback Dinopium javanense in the group but was not sure entirely if it was part of the bird wave.

Juvenile Snowy-browed Flycatcher Ficedula hyperythra and Feeding Behaviour

On 18th May 2023 I was at approximately 1,800m ASL at Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia when I saw a family unit of Snowy-browed Flycatcher (Ficedula hyperythra). Both adults were collecting prey, to feed one or two juveniles (unsure if 1 or 2 juveniles).

Once I arrived, the adults became very confiding. Although they ‘stashed’ their juvenile(s) in the undergrowth, out of my view, they approached me at close range. Often, they were too close for the long lens to focus on, and at times they were at my feet. Very often they dashed past my body or face.

Image 1: Adult male Snowy-browed Flycatcher, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia-18th May 2023


Image 2: Adult female Snowy-browed Flycatcher, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia-18th May 2023


I then realised they were using me as their ‘feeding station’. I had been walking up slopes quite a bit that morning and was hot and sweaty. A number of insects were attracted to the salt on my body and the heat. These crafty Snowy-browed Flycatchers used this ‘captive’ opportunity over the next 20 minutes to feed their juvenile(s).

Fortunately for me, the juvenile(s) were not content to wait for feeds and they also joined the feeding activity and I was able to see them well. One juvenile, that was imaged well from the back, had a slate-bluish tail, suggesting it was a male.

Image 3: Juvenile Snowy-browed Flycatcher, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia-18th May 2023
Image 4: Juvenile male Snowy-browed Flycatcher, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia-18th May 2023


Food items given to juvenile(s) were the many different small flying insects buzzing around me; ID unknown. The only clear prey I saw in an adult’s beak was a small caterpillar.

Needless to say, I took many images of the birds. Images of juveniles and one each of the adults shown.

White-Faced Heron Egretta novaehollandiae catches a lizard

posted in: bird | 0

Wong Kais was exploring the Thunder Point Reserve, Warrnambool when he came face to face with this bird.

Image 1: Wong Kais met a White-faced heron at Warrnambool. 3 March 2023. Photo credit Wong Kais.
Image 2: The heron then walked into the grass by the side of the road. 3 March 2023. Credit Wong Kais


Video by Wong Kais. He observed a white-faced heron Egretta novaehollandiae catch a small lizard for lunch. The video shows the bird foraging amongst the grass, moving its neck in characteristic undulating motion. It then peered into some long grass, made a quick strike and pulled out a small lizard. The lizard was no match for the bird which devoured it in one gulp.


Texts by Teo Lee Wei.

Photographs and video by Wong Kais.


LINK   Kais had similarly seen a heron catch a snake at Victor Harbor.


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Frugivory by the Checker-throated Woodpecker Chrysophlegma mentale

I recently described the feeding technique of the Checker-throated Woodpecker Chrysophlegma mentale (Amar-Singh HSS 2023). On 22nd May 2023 I had another extended opportunity (25 minutes) to observe the feeding behaviour of a pair of Checker-throated Woodpeckers. As seen before, and noted in the literature, the birds explore cavities or do surface gleaning for prey; cavities were preferred.

I was also able to document frugivory (fruit feeding) by the Checker-throated Woodpecker. I saw both birds feeding on the fruit of the Trema orientalis. Photographic observation was difficult as the birds sat on the bushy crown of the tree and were often obscured. But feeding was rapid with many fruits taken. Fortunately, one image documented the fruit being taken (see image 1).

Image 1: Checker-throated Woodpecker Chrysophlegma mentale feeding on the fruit of the Trema orientalis

The birds also visited two fruiting Ficus trees (one had unripe fruit, see image 2; the other had ripe fruit) but I was not able to see any fruit feeding.

Image 2: Checker-throated Woodpecker Chrysophlegma mentale at fruiting Ficus tree

In the past I have reported the Checker-throated Woodpecker feed on the fruit of a Giant Mahang (Macaranga gigantea) (Amar-Singh HSS 2022).

Wells (2007) does not describe any frugivory for the region. On the diet, Gorman (2014) mentions “sometimes berries” but provides no details of the type or identification. I reviewed online images, including the Macaulay Library, and found one more fruit feeding documentation (apart from mine) – an image by Chun-Fai Lo (2019) of a Checker-throated Woodpecker feeding on Giant Mahang.

The documentation supports that Checker-throated Woodpeckers feed on a number of different fruit types. More work is required in this area.

In the past, I have also observed the Crimson-winged Woodpecker (Picus puniceus observandus) and Banded Woodpecker (Picus miniaceus malaccense) feeding on the fruit of the Giant Mahang (Macaranga gigantea) (see Amar-Singh HSS 2015).



  1. Amar-Singh HSS (2023). Checker-throated Woodpecker Chrysophlegma mentale Feeding Technique. Bird Ecology Study Group.
  2. Amar-Singh HSS (2023). New species observed feeding on Giant Mahang fruit. Bird Ecology Study Group.
  3. Wells, D.R. (1999). The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: Vol. 1 (Non-Passerines). Christopher Helm, London.
  4. Gorman, G. (2014). Woodpeckers of the World. The Complete Guide. Christopher Helm, London, UK.
  5. Chun-Fai Lo (2019). Image of a Checker-throated Woodpecker feeding on Giant Mahang fruit at Gunung Panti RF, Johor, Malaysia. Macaulay Library.
  6. Amar-Singh HSS (2015). Frugivory by Woodpeckers: Crimson-winged and Banded. Bird Ecology Study Group.


Red-rumped parrots Psephotus haematonotus

posted in: Feeding-plants | 0

Red-rumped parrots are seen occasionally in Victor Harbor.  A flock of these birds appeared on consecutive days and hanged around some wires in the mornings and then again in the evenings.  The males are brightly coloured with a red rump while the female is more drab and has an absence of the red rump.

They mostly stay together in pairs and preen very vigorously before flying away together.

Wong Kais managed to get a few shots and video clips when they came close to where he was.

Image 1: A pair of Red-rumped Parrots on a wire. The colourful male is on the left and the less brightly coloured female is on the right. The female is preening its feathers. 29 May 2023. Credit Wong Kais. Victor Harbor
Image 2: A pair of the parrots were foraging on a grass patch. The red patch on the rump is evident in the male and female lacks that telling red patch. 3 June 2023. Credit Wong Kais. Victor Harbor
Image 3: The male parrot reaches to the soil and tugs at the grass rhizome/stolon. 3 June 2023. Credit Wong Kais. Victor Harbor
Image 4: The female also reaches down for the grass stolon. 3 June 2023. Credit Wong Kais. Victor Harbor
Image 5: The female Red-rumped parrot has pulled up a short section of grass stolon, seen as a short white strand in its beak. 3 June 2023. Credit Wong Kais. Victor Harbor
Image 6: The female parrot chewing on the short section of white coloured grass stolon. 3 June 2023. Credit Wong Kais. Victor Harbor


Video 1: The Red-rumped parrots appeared on the wire on consecutive days. This pair was seen to preen themselves a distance away from the others.  Although they fly onto the wire in a group they tend to maintain a distance from other pairs or individuals. Wong Kais. 29 May 2023. Victor Harbor

Video 2: On the morning of 29 May 2023 the Red-rumped parrots were seen hanging out with European starlings.  They coexisted peacefully with each individual doing their favourite activity of self-preening. Wong Kais. Victor Harbor

Video 3: At 4. 30 pm 3 June 2023 a pair of Red-rumped parrots flew onto the grass patch and started tugging at the grass stolons and chewing on them. Wong Kais. Victor Harbor

These Red-rumped parrots exhibit the same feeding behaviour as the House Sparrows LINK  in this area.



  1. Fleurieu Birds: What to see and where to see them by Peter Gower © 2012
  2. Pictures of Red-rumped parrots in Australia,hollows%2C%20often%20in%20dead%20trees.


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Stripe-nosed Halfbeak (Zenarchopterus buffonis)

posted in: Fishes | 0
A Stripe-nosed Halfbeak (Zenarchopterus buffonis). Photo credit Soh Kam Yung


Soh Kam Yung spotted a Stripe-nosed Halfbeak (Zenarchopterus buffonis) at Pasir Ris Park on 26 Feb 2023.

He explains that this is a common fish often seen in mangrove areas.

Kam Yung also elaborated that for those unfamiliar with the fish, it is a small fish (20 cm long) with a very long lower jaw that ends with a white spot at the tip. The short upper jaw ends just after the eyes. It feeds on food on the water surface and is usually seen together in groups just under the surface.


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Female olive-backed sunbird visits Russelia flowers

posted in: bird, Feeding-plants, Videography | 0

A female olive-backed sunbird was seen collecting nectar from the Russelia equisetiformis flowers.  These plants are commonly called firecrackers in Singapore.  The branches which are allowed to cascade down from a height are covered profusely with small flowers.  There are red, pink and beige cultivars of these flowers.

Sunbirds love to visit them although they did not coevolve.  Sunbirds are native to the Old World, extending from Africa to Middle East, Asia to tropical Australia. Russelia is native to Mexico. Hummingbirds are native to the Americas and share similar long curved bills with the sunbirds. Sunbirds therefore are suitably adapted to collect nectar from the introduced Russelia flowers.

Sheng Lau shared the above video showing the female sunbird flitting from flower to flower.  The video was taken in his garden on 2 June 2023.





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25 Responses

  1. kris

    I just found a young dollarbird in the garden.. It seems to have left the nest too early and cannot fly yet. How am i to keep and feed it for a few days untill it can fly.???

  2. Iwan

    We have a small pond in our garden surrounded by trees and steep bedrock. The other day we saw a heron flying over and attempting to land – I guess to try to eat our small stock of fish. We managed to frighten it away before it landed, and have since installed trip wires around the pond in order to dissuade the bird. The amount of shelter around the pond means that a heron would have to land practically vertically. Does anyone know whether these birds have the agility to hover and land in this way, or do they always need a “glidepath” in order to land successfully?

  3. Khng Eu Meng

    Today, at the former Bidadari Cemetery, there was a buzz about a sighting of a Grey Nightjar (Caprimulgus jotaka). I heard some birders say this nightjar isn’t commonly seen in Singapore. After some hunting, we spotted it asleep on a tree branch, some 15 m above ground. This was rather interesting as my previous encounters with nightjars have been on either terra firma or on low branches.

    Is this perching so high up the tree normal or is it unusual? I have posted a photo of it on my Facebook Timeline:

  4. Jess

    Bird Sanctuary At Former Bidadari Cementry

    1)Which is the best spot in Bidadari cemetery for bird watch?

    2)Where this bird usually resident at?

    3)What are some of the rare bird species that can be found at Bidadari?

    4)Where is the particular hot spot for the hornbills, eagles, kingfishers and some of the rare migratory bird?

    5)Which part of Bidadari are richest in it wildlife?

    6)Can you name me the 59 migratory bird species found?

  5. YC

    Why not search the website using the word ‘Bidadari’ to obtain the information you need. There should be sufficient info in past postings to satisfy you.

  6. Firdaus Razak

    Hai, I just want to ask did anybody had an experience bring bird from oversea via MasKargo? Did the bird will stress at high altitude?

  7. Chung Wah

    Hi, I am new to bird photography! Could anyone advise a good pair of binoculars to get for this hobby?

  8. Geam Liang

    I ‘acquired’ a female Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot 5 days ago – was in a public place when the bird flew overhead hit the wall and dropped right in front of me dazed. I picked it up, it appeared unhurt but could not sustain it’s flight. I have since constructed a fairly large ‘cage’ for it, about 4ft x 2fx x 2ft and placed it there last night. I temporarily placed her in a normal bird cage until I had completed the build.
    From what I have read up, it’s a fruit, seed and insect feeder and also nectar, flower buds. It’s doing as well as it can on bananas, papaya, jack-fruit (didn’t touch the grape) and seeds (black and white sunflower and other smaller ones). It loves to bathe so I’ve gotten it a tray and from what I read it’s important to keep things clean as it easily succumbs to infection.
    Does anyone else have any useful experience and sharing on it’s upkeep? I suspect this bird is an escapee – as far as I can read up, it’s not common, if at all, found in Georgetown, Penang where I am. I’m also not optimistic that it can survive if I were to set it free – assuming it can sustain it’s flight and not go crashing down and if there were dogs/cats around that would be the end of it.
    I can attach some pictures but not sure how to do this…

  9. Lee Chiu San

    The blue-crowned hanging parrot, even though very closely related to the lovebirds, is a nectar feeder. You would raise it the way you raise a lorikeet – which is a messy process. And because you are mixing batches of food for just one little bird, whereas I used to do it for about half a dozen pigeon-sized lorikeets each morning, I don’t know how you are going to get the portions down to manageable sizes. Anyway, here goes, with my recipe for feeding big lories. You can adjust the proportions down accordingly for your little bird.

    The staple diet would be a couple of slices of soft fruit (papaya, apple, grapes, even though I am surprised that you said the bird would not eat any) and a mixture of cooked rice sweetened with nectar mix.

    How to make nectar mix? Go to a pharmacy and get a can of food for invalids or infants. I use Complan, but I am sure any good baby formula would do. I usually make up enough to fill a beer mug, but there is no way you need that amount for a day’s feeding. If in doubt, make the mixture thinner, not thicker. Birds cannot digest baby formula that is too thick. If it is too thin, they simply have to consume more to get the required amount of energy. Then to this mug, add half a teaspoonful of rose syrup. Also stir in about a cup of cooked rice, well mashed up.

    In the case of your bird, I suggest that you pour this lot into an ice-cube tray, freeze the mixture, and defrost one cube to feed it each day.

    Now, you said that this bird eats sunflower seeds. This is most unusual for a blue-crowned hanging parrot. Are you sure that this is actually the species you have? Could it be possible that you have actually got a pet lovebird that escaped? There are so many different artificially-created breeds of lovebirds in so many colours that you might have been mistaken.

    If you actually have a lovebird, feeding is much simpler. Just go to the nearest pet shop, buy a packet of budgerigar or cockatiel seed of a reputable international brand, and offer it to the bird. You can supplement this with a couple of slices of fruit each day, and that will be all. Plus of course fresh water and a piece of cuttlefish bone to nibble on.

  10. Lee Chiu San

    About nectar feeding birds. I forgot to add that feeding nectar is messy, and it goes rancid very quickly in our tropical weather. Feeding containers have to be removed and thoroughly cleaned at the end of each day. The birds also splatter the mixture and wipe their beaks on perches and the bars of the cage. All my lories and lorikeets used to be housed in outdoor aviaries which were hosed down daily.

    If Geam Liang does not think the bird will survive if released, I really hope that it is a case of mistaken identity, and that you have a lovebird, rather than a blue-crowned hanging parrot. In our part of the world, all available lovebirds are domestically bred, take to captivity readily, and are easy to feed with commercially available seed mixtures. Yes, and being domestic pets, they would not survive if released.

  11. Geam Liang

    Thank you Chiu San for your inputs. Thus far, bananas and papayas work well. I’m not sure why it did not take to grapes – will try again. Am I supposed to peel it? I didn’t the last time, basically skewered a couple of grapes to a satay stick and positioned it as I did for the sliced and skinned papaya and peeled bananas.
    I have yet to try rice and certainly not nectar but will try out your concoction – have half a mind to go to a pet shop to see if they carry nectar for birds. The ice-cube freeze method is a good one, will try that. I might be mistaken on the sunflower seeds… not touched but it did eat the much smaller roundish, mixed colored seeds. Will remove the sunflower seeds.
    I’m sure it’s a female blue crowned hanging parrot.. it sleeps like a bat every night.

  12. Lee Chiu San

    When feeding local birds which are unfamiliar with imported fruits such as grapes, it helps to split the fruits to expose the edible parts. As to your remark that the bird sleeps hanging upside down like a bat, yes, that is the way blue-crowned hanging parrots sleep.

  13. Geam Liang

    Thanks… I need to think like a bird – yup. She has probably not seen a grape much less know that it’s edible, unless the previous owner has fed her with grapes… even then… Today she’s done pretty well making the most of the banana and all of the papaya plus quite a bit of seeds. Will try the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup.
    Will regular honey do instead of rose syrup?

  14. Lee Chiu San

    About making nectar to feed birds. Most aviculturalists do not use honey for two reasons: 1. It is expensive and does not seem to give any added benefits. 2. Honey is made by bees, and the composition varies wildly. Some honeys are also known to cause fungal infection in birds.

    If you do not want to buy a huge bottle of rose syrup just for one tiny bird, there are cheaper alternatives. The first is plain table sugar, though most don’t seem to like it very much.

    What many birds will accept quite readily as a sweetener is condensed milk – the type with sugar that coffee shop owners use.

    Many, many birds have a sweet tooth (or should I say sweet beak?) Besides the usual suspects of lories, lorikeets, sunbirds and hummingbirds, for whom it is an essential part of the diet, nectar mixture is readily consumed by mynahs, leafbirds, fairy bluebirds, barbets, doves, parrots of all kinds, and a whole host of other species.

  15. Geam Liang

    I tried the condensed mild, placed in in a small bottle cap.. only the ants showed interest. Am I supposed to dilute it? I didn’t =( I took you advice and refrained from honey. Have yet to find Rose Syrup from the shelves of TESCO… will try to mix the baby food + mashed rise + rose syrup/sugar syrup this week…

  16. David Thackray

    Can anyone help me identify a bird I saw in Singapore last week. Size of a smakll dove or thrush. Dark metallic back. Grey breast with red throat, chest.

  17. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers

  18. Emily Koh

    Lately I bought a bird feeder which I fill with 4parts water n 1 part white sugar. Sunbirds come regularly to drink and they are really lovely to watch. May I know if it is bad for them to feed on this? Previously they would sometimes pierce and drink from my potted flowers.

  19. Mahadevi Bhuti

    One of best souce for the bird watcher’s enjoying knowledge about ornithology

  20. Martin Nyffeler (PhD)

    Dear Sir / Dear Madame,

    I am a Senior Lecturer in Zoology at a University in Switzerland and I urgently need to get in touch with photographer Chan Yoke Meng, who takes beautiful photographs of birds near Singapore. Would you please mail me the email address of this photographer!


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