Phasmid Necroscia confusa (stick insect) mating

posted in: Videography | 0

Phasmids are nocturnal insects which have incomplete metamorphosis and moult a few times in their life time.  The insects are plant feeders. They have poor eyesight and hearing and males detect the presence of receptive females through pheromones released by the females.  Some species of phasmids exhibit parthenogenesis, the process of producing clones without the presence of the opposite sex.

During mating, a male passes a spermatophore (sperm ampulla) to the ovipore of the female with the help of a paired organ called the aedeagus. The structure is akin to a phallus cum clasp. The female stores the spermatophore in a chamber inside her body known as the spermatheca. The spermatozoa stored in her spermatheca are released over a period of time to fertilize her eggs.

The eggs are variable in shape, size and surface ornaments.  Eggs can be dropped to the ground, glued to bark/leaves/ground/holes in trees or even pierced through leaves.

Francis Seow-Choen shared with BESGroup a video of a pair of mating Necroscia confusa. The smaller-sized male has its lower abdomen curved towards the ovipore of the larger-sized female.

Necroscia confusa mating. The male is smaller in size than the female. Note the abdomen of the male has curled downwards towards the female’s reproductive opening.



  1. A taxonomic guide to the Stick Insects of Sumatra Vol II © 2020 Francis Seow-Choen
  2. A taxonomic guide to the Stick Insects of Sumatra Vol III © 2019 Francis Seow-Choen
  3. Biodiversity of Singapore: An encyclopedia of the Natural Environment and Sustainable Development © 2011  Edited by: Peter KL Ng, Richard T. Corlett and Hugh T. W. Tan

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