Plant-Bird Relationship: 3. List of Birds

on 3rd July 2015

This list is compiled from the plant list LINK. Under each species of birds are the different plants that they visit for shelter (roost), food (nectar, fruit or insect), nesting materials and nest sites. The birds are listed under their different families and arranged in alphabetical order. Emphasis is given to their common names, followed by their scientific names. Plants are in scientific names.

Should there be a necessity to refer to the original source/s, note the plant name, then consult the plant list LINK. Under the relevant plant species, refer to the relevant species of bird where references are provided. You can then check with the reference list that will be posted tomorrow.

[feeding on nectar, from left (bird-plant): Crimson Sunbird-Etlingera elatior, Javan Myna-Schefflera actinophylla, Yellow-naped Oriole-Schefflera actinophylla]

1. ACANTHIZIDAE (gerygones and allies)
Golden-bellied Gerygone Gerygone sulphurea – bryophyte (nest-material plant), lichen (nest-material plant)

2. ACCIPITRIDAE (hawks and eagles)
Grey-headed Fish-eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus – Paraserianthes falcataria (nesting)
Oriental Honey-buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus – Acacia auriculiformis (nesting), Fagraea fragrans (nesting), Pterocarpus indicus (nesting)
Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus – Hevea brasiliensis (nesting), Mangifera indica (nesting)
Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus – Casuarina equisetifolia (nesting)

Common Iora Aegithina tiphia – Azdirachta indica (insect), Callicarpa glabrifolis (fruit), Callistemon sp. (insect), Cassia fistula (insect), Ficus benjamina (insect), Moringa pterygosperma (flower)
Green Iora Aegithina viridissima – Macaranga bancana (fruit)

4. ALCEDINIDAE (kingfisher)
Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris – Cocos nucifera (nesting), Durio zibethinus (nesting), Fagraea fragrans (insect)

5. ANTIDAE (ducks, geese and swans)
Wandering Lesser Whistling-duck Dendrocygna javanica – grass (plant, nesting), Oryza sativa – (plant)

6. APODIDAE (swifts)
Asian Palm-swift Cypsiurus balasiensis – Areca sp. (nesting), Borassus sp. (nesting), Ceiba pentandra (nest-material seed-pappus), Livistona sp. (nesting), Typha angustifolia (nest-material seed-pappus)
House Swift Apus affinis – Casuarina equisetifolia (nest-material needle-branch)
Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia esculenta – lichen (nest-material plant)

7. ARDEIDAE (herons and egrets)
Great Egret Ardea alba – Avicennia sp. (nesting), Nymphaea sp. (forage), Rhizophora sp. (nesting)
Great-billed Heron Ardea sumatrana – Melaleuca sp. (nesting)
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea – Avicennia sp. (nesting), Casuarina equisetifolia (nesting), Rhizophora sp. (nesting)
Little Heron Butorides striatus – Bruguiera cylindrical (nesting)
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea – Durio zibethinus (nesting)
Chinese Pond-heron Ardeola bacchus – Ficus sp. (nesting), Pinus sp. (nesting)

8. BUCEROTIDAE (hornbills)
Hornbills – Aglaia lawii (fruit), Aglaia spectabilis (fruit), Albizia saman (nesting, roost), Artocarpus lacucha (fruit), Canarium euphyllum (fruit), Canthium sp. (fruit), Carapa sp. (nesting), Chisocheton sp. (fruit), Cinnamomum ilicioides (fruit), Cinnamomum subavenium (fruit), Cissus repens (fruit), Cleistocalyx nervosum (fruit, nesting), Cocos nucifera (nesting), Dysoxylum sp. (fruit), Dysoxylum densiflorum (fruit), Fagraea fragrans (nesting), Ficus sp. (fruit), Ficus altissima (fruit), Ficus auriculata (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus microcarpa (fruit), Ficus kurzii (fruit), Gymnacranthera sp. (fruit), Knema sp. (fruit), Knema elegans (fruit), Lagerstroemia speciosa (nesting), Leucaena leucocephalia (fruit), Litsea sp. (fruit), Litsea monopetala (fruit), Livistona jenkinsiana (fruit), Myristica sp. (fruit), Polyalthia viridis (fruit), Sterculia sp. (fruit), Syzygium sp. (fruit), Ternestingroemia sp. (fruit), Vitex pubescens (fruit) Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis – Albizia saman (roost), Ficus sp. (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus fistulosa (fruit), Paraserianthes falcataria (nesting, roost)
Helmeted Hornbill Rhinoplax vigil – Parkia speciosa (fruit)
Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris – Annona muricata (fruit), Antidesma bunius (fruit), Bhesa robusta (fruit), Carica papaya (fruit), Carpentaria acuminata (fruit), Caryota mitis (fruit), Casuarina equisetifolia (nesting), Durio zibethinus (nesting), Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus kerkhovenii (fruit), Ficus microcarpa (fruit), Gluta malayana (nesting), Moringa pterygosperma (fruit), Musa cultivar (fruit), Morinda citrifolia (fruit), Morus alba (fruit), Nephelium lappaceum (fruit, nesting), Oncosperma sp. (fruit), Oryza sativa (fruit), Psidium guajava (fruit), Paraserianthes falcataria (nesting), Pterocarpus indicus (nesting), Ptycospermun macarthuri (fruit), Shorea gibbosa (nesting), Sterculia parviflora or macrophyllia (fruit), Syzygium malaccense (fruit)
Rhinoceros Hornbill Buceros rhinoceros – Ficus benjamina (fruit), Paraserianthes falcataria (nesting)
Wreathed Hornbill Aceros undulates – Baccaurea sp. (fruit), Hopea sp. (nesting)
Wrinkled Hornbill Aceros corrugatus – Myristica sp. (fruit)

9. CACATIDAE (cockatoos)
Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea – Carica papays (fruit)
Tanimbar Corella Cacatua goffini – Averrhoa carambola (seed), Carica papaya (fruit), Cassia fistula (fruit), Cerbera odollam (fruit), Gluta malayana (nesting), Leucaena leucocephalia (seed), Mangifera indica (fruit), Moringa pterygosperma (fruit), Passiflora laurifolia (fruit), Pterocarpus indicus (nesting), Terminalia catappa (seed), Thevetia peruviana (?fruit)

10. CAMPEPHAGIDAE (cuckoo-shrikes)
Fiery Minivet Pericrocotus igneus – lichen (nest-material plant)
Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus – Areca catechu (nesting), lichen (nest-material plant), Macaranga sp. (fruit)
Pied Triller Lalage nigra – Artocarpus integer (nesting), Azdirachta indica (insect), Cassia fistula (insect), Casuarina equisetifolia (nest-material needle-branch), Ceiba pentandra (nest-material seed-pappus), Cocos nucifera (nest-material fibre), Erythrina sp. (nest-material leafr), Ficus benjamina (insect), Hevea brasil (nesting), lichen (nest-material plant), Macaranga gigantea (fruit), Vitex pubescens (nesting)
Large Woodshrike Tephrodornis gularis – bamboo (forage), bryophyte (nest), lichen (nesting), Durio zibethinus (nesting), Pyrrosia piloselloides (nest-material plant)

11. CAPITONIDAE (barbets)
Blue-eared Barbet Megalaima australis duvauceli – Ficus benjamina (fruit)
Brown Barbet Calorhamphus fuliginosus – Durio zibethinus (nesting, roost), Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Ficus sp. (fruit), Ficus consociata (fruit), Ficus villosa (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Poikilospermum suaveolens (nectar)
Coppersmith Barbet Megalaima haemacephala – Cyrtostachys renda (nesting), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Ficus religiosa (fruit, insect), Hura crepitans (nesting), Paraserianthes falcataria (nesting), Pithecellobium dulce (?fruit)
Gold-whiskered barbet Megalaima chrysopogon – Carica papaya (fr), Ficus sp. (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus consociata (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Morinda elliptica (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Ptycospermun macarthuri (fruit)
Lineated Barbet Megalaima lineata hodgsoni – Azdirachta indica (fruit), Caryota mitis (fruit), Cocos nucifera (nesting), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Morinda citrifolia (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Pithecellobium dulce (fruit), Tectona grandis (nesting)
Red-crowned Barbet Megalaima rafflesii – Cinnamomum iners (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Melastoma malabathricum (fruit), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit)
Red-throated Barbet Megalaima mystacophanos – Carica papaya (fr), Elaeocarpus sp. (fruit), Ficus villosa (fruit

12. CHLOROPSEIDAE (leafbirds)
Blue-winged Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis – Dillenia suffruticosa (seed), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Macrosolen cochinchinensis (nectar), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Poikilospermum suaveolens (flower)
Golden-fronted Leafbird Chloropsis aurifrons – Syzygium grande (nectar)
Greater Green Leafbird Chloropsis sonnerati – Durio zibethinus (fruit), Ficus sp. (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Nephelium lappaceum (fruit), Poikilospermum suaveolens (flower, nectar), Syzygium grande (nectar), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit)
Lesser Green Leafbird Chloropsis cyanopogon – Ficus benjamina (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit)
Orange-bellied Leafbird Chloropsis hardwickii – Callistemon sp. (nectar), Macaranga gigantea (fruit)

13. CICONIIDAE (storks)
Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea – Avicennia sp (nesting)
Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala – filamentous algae (plant)

14. CISTICOLIDAE (cisticolas and allies)
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis – Fimbristylis schoenoides (nesting), Imperata cylindrica (nest-material seed-pappus, nest-material leaf, nesting), Ischaemum timorense (nest-material leaf), Ottochloa nodosa (nest-material fruit), Sporobolus sp. (nest-material fruit)
Yellow-bellied Prinia Prinia flaviventris – Bamboo (nesting, nest-material leaf), Cocos nucifera (nest-material fibre), Eragrostis sp. (nest-material fruiting-head, nesting), Imperata cylindrica (nest-material seed-pappus, nest-material leaf, nesting), Melastoma malabathricum (nesting), Oldenlandia sp. (nest-material plant), Pluchea indica (nesting)
Tailorbird – Ceiba pentandra (nest-material seed), Dillenia suffruticosa (nesting), Spathodea campanulata (nest-material seed)
Common Tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius – Averrhoa carambola (insect, nesting), Chrysopogon aciculatus (nest-material fruiting-head), Cocos nucifera (nest-material fibre), Colocasia esculenta (leaf-bath), Epiphyllum oxypetalum (leaf-bath), Epipremnum pinnatum Aureum nesting), Ficus grossularioides (nesting), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (nesting), Imperata cylindrica (nest-material seed-pappus), Macaranga hypoleuca (nesting), Morinda citrifolia (leaf-bath), Musa acuminata (nesting), Musa cultivar (nest-material fibre, nesting), Passiflora suberosa (insect), Persea americana (nest-material leaf), Psidium guajava (nesting), Solanum melongena (nesting)
Dark-necked Tailorbird Orthotomus atrogularis – Dillenia suffruticosa (nesting), Ficus benjamina (insect), Imperata cylindrica (nest-material seed-pappus)
Mountain Tailorbird Phyllergates cucullatus – bryophyte (nest-material plant)
Rufous-tailed Tailorbird Orthotomus sericeus – Gleichenia sp. (leaf-bath)

[feeding on fruit, from left (bird-plant) – Javan Myna-Cissus hastata; Black-naped Oriole-Epipremnum pinnatum; Large-billed Crow-Rhopaloblaste ceramica]

15. COLUMBIDAE (pigeons and doves)
Barred Cuckoo-dove Macropygia unchall – Pandanus sp. (nesting)
Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica – Ficus benjamina (?fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit)
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis – Artocarpus integer (nesting), Axonopus compressus (seed), bamboo (nesting), Borreria sp. (nest-material plant), Bougainvillea sp. (nesting), Costus speciosus (seed), Cratoxylum formosum (nest-material twig), Cynodon dactylon (nm), Davellia denticulate (nm-frond), Delonix regia (nesting), Dendrobium triflorum (nest-material stem), Grass (seed, nm-rh), Ischaemum muticum (nest-material), Juniperus chinensis (nesting), Luffa aegyptica (nest-material tendril/twig/leaf), Macaranga hyeni (nest-material leaf), Mangifera indica (nesting), Oryza sativa (fruit), Phoenix sp. (nesting), Phyllanthus amarus (fruit), Phyllanthus urinaria (fruit), Russelia equisetiformis (nest-material stem), Zoysia matrella (seed)
Zebra Dove Geopelia striata – Asplenium nidus (nesting), Artocarpus integer (nesting), bamboo (nesting), Bauhinia kokiana (nesting), Cocos nucifera (nesting), Ficus benjamina (?fruit), Oldenlandia sp. (nest-material plant), Pithecellobium dulce (?fruit), Pyrrosia piloselloides (nest-material plant), Xanthostemon chrysanthus (nesting)
Large Green Pigeon Treron capellei
Little Green-pigeon Treron olax – Ficus sp. (fruit)
Orange-breasted Green-pigeon Treron bicincta – Syzygium polyanthum (fruit)
Pink-necked Green-pigeon Treron vernans – Aphanamixis polystachys (nesting), Artocarpus odoratissimus (nest-material leaf), Azdirachta indica (fruit), Bauhinia kokiana (nest-material twig), Bridelia tomentosa (fruit), Callistemon sp. (nest-material leaf), Cratoxylum formosum (nest-material twig), Dillenia suffruticosa (petal, seed), Dracaena fragrans (nesting), Dracaena reflexa (nesting), Erythrina crista-galli (nesting), Fagraea crenulata (shelter), Fagraea fragrans (fruit), Ficus sp. (fruit, nesting), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Ficus fistulosa (fruit), Melastoma malabathricum (fruit, nesting), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Murraya koenigii (nesting), Olea brachiata (fruit), Palm (fruit), Pithecellobium dulce (?fruit), Ptycospermun macarthuri (fruit), Rhopaloblaste ceramica (?fruit), Syzygium grande (leaf), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit), Wrightia religiosa (nesting), Xanthostemon chrysanthus (roost)
Thick-billed Green-pigeon Treron curvirostra – Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus virens (fruit)
Yellow-vented Green-pigeon Treron seimundi – Ficus benjamina (fruit)
Green Imperial-pigeon Ducula aenea – Ptycospermun macarthuri (fruit)
Jambu Fruit-dove Ptilinopus jambu – Syzygium grande (fruit), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit)
Mountain Imperial-pigeon Ducula badia – Pandanus sp. (nesting)
Pied Imperial-pigeon Ducula bicolor – Ficus sp. (fruit), Livistona chinensis (fruit), Rhopaloblaste ceramica (fruit)
Pale-capped Pigeon Columba punicea – bamboo (nesting)
Rock Pigeon Columba livia -Bridelia tomentosa (fruit), Oryza sativa (fruit)

16. CORACIIDAE (rollers)
Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis – Oncosperma sp. (nesting), Paraserianthes falcataria (insect), Cocos nucifera (nesting)

17. CORVIDAE (crows)
House Crow Corvus splendens – Albizia saman (roost), Cratoxylum formosum (nm-t), Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Khaya grandifolia (roost), Peltophorum pterocarpum (nesting, roost), Pterocarpus indicus (nesting, roost), Rhopaloblaste ceramica (nesting), Spathodea campanulata (roost), Swietenia macrophylla (roost), Terminalia catappa (roost)
Large-billed Crow Corvus japonensis – Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Rhopaloblaste ceramica (fruit)
Slender-billed Crow Corvus enca – Erythrina sp. (nesting)
Black Magpie Platysmurus leucopterus – Bryophyte (nest-material plant), Calamus sp. (nesting)

18. CUCULIDAE (cuckoos)
Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis bubutus – Pennisetum purpureum (nest-material leaf, nesting)
Lesser Coucal Centropus bengalensis – Hevea brasiliensis (nest-material leaf), Imperata cylindrica (nest-material leaf, nesting), Melastoma malabathricum (nesting), Mimosa pudica (nesting)
Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopacea – Archontophoenix alexandrae (fruit), Arenga engleri (fruit), Azdirachta indica (fruit), Carica papaya (fruit), Caryota urens (fruit), Cephalandra indica (fruit), Cinnamomum camphora (fruit), Erythrina variegata (fruit), Ficus benghalensis (fruit), Ficus religiosa (fruit), Ficus religiosa (fruit), Livistona chinensis (fruit), Morinda citrifolia (fruit), Morinda elliptica (fruit), Morus sp. (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Murraya koenigii (fruit), Nephelium lappaceum (fruit), Olea brachiata (fruit), Pipturus argenteus (fruit), Ptycospermun macarthuri (fruit), Rhopaloblaste ceramica (fruit), Santalum album (fruit), Syzygium cumini (fruit), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit), Tamarinda indica (fruit), Zizyphus mauritiana (fruit)
Chestnut-bellied Malkoha Rhopodytes sumatranus – Eucalyptus sp. (nesting)

19. DICAEIDAE (flowerpeckers)
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum percussus – Clidemia hirta (fruit), Ficus consociata (fruit), Ficus villosa (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Melastoma malabathricum (fruit), Psidium guajava (fruit)
Fire-breasted (Buff-bellied) Flowerpecker Dicaeum ignipectus – Callistemon sp. (nectar)
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum trigonostigma – bryophyte (nest-material), Citrus medica (nesting), Cyrtostachys renda (fruit), Dendrophthoe pentendra (nectar), Dillenia suffruticosa (leaf-bath), Durio zibethinus (fruit), Dypsis lutescens (fruit), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Ficus microcarpa (fruit), Imperata cylindrical (nest-material fruiting-head), Melastoma malabathricum (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Nephelium ramboutan-ake (fruit), Poikilospermum suaveolens (nectar), Syzygium grande (nectar), Piper aduncum (fruit)
Plain Flowerpecker Dicaeum minullum – Ficus benjamina (fruit)
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum – Ceiba pentandra (nest-material seed-pappus), Cinnamomum iners (nesting), Cissus hastata (fruit), Citrus hystrix (nest-material bark), Dendrophthoe pentandra (nectar, fruit), Dillenia suffruticosa (leaf-bath), Eugenia uniflora (nest-material bark), Ficus consociata (fruit), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Horsfieldia sp. (nesting), Imperata cylindrical (nest-material fruiting-head), Lagerstroemia sp. (forage, nest-material bark), Macrosolen cochinchinensis (fruit), Melastoma malabathricum (fruit), Mistletoe (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Myrmecodia ?tuberosa (fruit), Pipturus argenteus (fruit), Saraca cauliflora (fruit), Schefflera actinophylla (?nectar), Scurrula ferruginea (fruit), Syzygium grande (nectar), Viscum ovalifolium (fruit), Typha angustifolia (nest-material seed-pappus), Wrightia religiosa (nesting, nest-material seed-pappus)
Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum thoracicus – Carmona retusa (fruit)
Thick-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile – Ficus benjamina (fruit)
Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus maculates – Ficus villosa (fruit), Imperata cylindrical (nest-material fruiting-head), Melastoma malabathricum (fruit)
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker Dicaeum chrysorrheum – Ficus villosa (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit)

20. DICRURIDAE (drongos)
Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus – bryophyte (nest-material plant), lichen (nest-material plant), Hevea brasiliensis (nesting)
Bronzed Drongo Dicrurus aeneus – Hevea brasiliensis (nesting)
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus – Ficus benjamina (insect), Syzygium polyanthum (insect)

21. ESTRILDIDAE (munias and Java sparrows)
Munia Panicum humidorum (seed), Pennisetum purpureum (nest-material fruiting-head)
Chestnut (Black-headed) Munia Lonchura atricapilla – Chrysopogon aciculatus (seed), Echinochloa colonum (seed), Imperata cylindrical (nesting), Ischaemum sp. (seed), Panicum sp. (seed), Paspalum conjugatum (seed), Paspalum scrobiculatum (seed), Pennisetum sp. (seed), Pennisetum purpureum (seed), Urochloa subquadripara (seed)
Dusky Munia Lonchura fuscans – Callicarpa glabrifolis (fruit)
Javan Munia Lonchura leucogastroides – Spirogyra (plant)
Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata – Areca catechu (nesting), Cyrtostachys renda (nesting), Pennisetum setaceum ‘Rubrum’ (seed), Spirogyra (plant)
White-headed Munia Lonchura maja – Bamboo (nesting), Canna hybrid (nesting), Cocos nucifera (nesting), Cycas rumphii (nesting), Digitaria sp. (seed), Dracaena angustifolia (nesting), Oryza sativa (seed), Panicum maximum (seed), Paspalum conjugatum (seed, nest-material fruiting-head), Pennisetum purpureum (fruit), Streblus elongates (nesting)
White-rumped Munia Lonchura striata – Areca catechu (nesting), Digitaria sp. (fruit), Duranta erecta (nesting), Melastoma malabathricum (nesting), Oryza sativa (seed)
Java Sparrow Padda oryzivora – Bamboos (fruit)

22. EURYLAIMIDAE (broadbills)
Banded Broadbill Eurylaimus javanicus – bamboo (mn-l), bryophyte (nest-material plant), lichen (nest-material plant), Pyrrosia piloselloides (nest-material plant)
Black-and-red Broadbill Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos – bamboo (nesting), Macaranga heynei (nesting), Nephelium lappaceum nesting), Pyrrosia piloselloides (nest-material plant)
Black-and-yellow Broadbill Eurylaimus ochromalus – bamboo (nest-material leaf, nesting), Ficus sp. (fruit)
Whitehead’s Broadbill Calyptomena whiteheadi – rattan (nesting)

23. FRINGILLIDAE (finches)
Brown Bullfinch Pyrrhura nipalensis – bryophyte (nesting), Baeckia sp. (fruit), Leptospermun sp. (fruit)

24. HEMIPROCNINAE (treeswifts)
Grey-rumped Treeswift Hemiprocne longipennis – Ceiba pentandra (?nest-material seed-pappus), Durio zibethinus (nesting)
Whiskered Treeswift Hemiprocne comata – bryophyte (nest-material plant)

25. HIRUNDINIDAE (swallows and martins)
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica – Alstonia sp. (roost)
House (Pacific) Swallow Hirundo tahitica – Cocos nucifera (nest-material fibre)

26. INDICATORIDAE (honeyguides)
Malaysian Honeyguide Indicator archipelagicus – Dipterocarpus oblongifolius (forage)

27. IRENIDAE (fairy -bluebirds)
Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella – Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit), Ficus sp. (fruit), Ficus microcarpa (fruit), Trema tomentosa (fruit)

28. LANIIDAE (shrikes)
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach – Bamboos (nest-material leaf)
Tiger Shrike Lanius tigrinus – Bridelia tomentosa (fruit), Ficus benjamina (insect)

[nest material, from left (bird-plant) – Spotted Dove-tendril; Spotted Dove-nest; Pink-necked Green-pigeon-twig]

29. MEROPIDAE (bee-eaters)
Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus philippinus – Azdirachta indica (insect)
Blue-throated Bee-eater Merops viridis viridis – Azdirachta indica (insect), Ficus benjamina (insect)
Chestnut-headed Bee-eater Merops leschenaulti – Albizia saman (roost), Azdirachta indica (insect)

30. MONARCHIDAE (monarchs-flycatchers)
Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea – bryophyte (nest-material plant), lichen (nest-material plant)
Asian Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi – Ficus benjamina (insect), Ficus religiosa (insect)

31. MOTACILLIDAE (wagtails and pipits)
Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus – Cocos nucifera (nest-material fibre, nest-material leafsh), Cynodon dactylon (nesting), Eragrostis sp. (nest-material fruiting-head), Imperata cylindrica (nest-material leaf, nesting), Ischaemum muticum (nesting), Mimosa pudica (nesting), Oldenlandia sp. (nesting), Senecio sp. (nesting)

32. MUSCICAPIDAE (old world flycatchers)
Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica – Azdirachta indica (insect), Ficus religiosa (insect), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Saraca cauliflora (insect), Syzygium grande (flower, insect), Syzygium polyanthum (insect)
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana – Ficus benjamina (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit)
Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica – Ficus religiosa (insect)
Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki – Ficus religiosa (insect), Macaranga bancana (fruit)
Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula narcissina elisae – Macaranga bancana (fruit)
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher Ficedula zanthopygia – Azdirachta indica (insect), Ficus benjamina (insect), Macaranga bancana (fruit)
Oriental Magpie-robin Copsychus saularis – Azdirachta indica (insect), Cocos nucifera (nesting), Delonix regia (nest-material leafr), Elaeis guineensis (?fruit), Pithecellobium dulce (fruit)
White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus – bamboo (nesting)
Large Niltava Niltava grandia – bryophyte (nm), Lantana camara (fruit)

33. NECTARINIIDAE (sunbirds and spiderhunters)
Sunbird – Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf-bath), Canna hybrids (nectar)
Black-throated Sunbird Aethopyga saturata – Fuchsia hybrida (nectar), Hibiscus sp. (nectar), Poikilospermum suaveolens (flower)
Brown-throated (Plain-throated) Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis – Acacia mangium (nectar), Areca catechu (nesting), Artocarpus integer (nesting), Azdirachta indica (insect), Bauhinia acuminata (nectar), Bougainvillea sp. (forage), Calliandra haematocephala (nectar), Callistemon sp. (nectar), Carica papaya (nectar), Celosia argentea (nectar), Clerodendrum paniculatum (fruit), Cocos nucifera (nectar, nest-material fibre, nesting), Costus woodsonii (nectar), Cratoxylum formosum (nectar), Dendrophthoe pentandra (nectar), Dillenia suffruticosa (seed), Durio zibethinus (fruit), Erythrina variegata (nectar), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Heliconia sp. (nectar), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (nectar), Hura crepitans (flower), Imperata cylindrica (nm-?, nest-material seed-pappus, nesting), Lumnitzera littorea (nectar), Macrosolen cochinchinensis (fruit), Melaleuca cajuputi (nectar), Morinda citrifolia (leaf-bath), Musa cultivar (leaf-bath), Nephelium lappaceum (fruit), Poikilospermum suaveolens (nectar), Pyrrosia piloselloides (forage), Rivina humilis (fruit), Saraca cauliflora (nectar), Schefflera actinophylla (nectar), Spathodea campanulata (nectar), Tabebuia rosea (nectar), Xanthostemon chrysanthus (nectar)
Copper-throated Sunbird Nectarinia calcostetha – Bruguiera sp. (?flower), bryophyte (nest-material)
Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja – Bougainvillea sp. (forage), Canna hybrids (nectar), Cratoxylum formosum (nectar), Dendrophthoe pentandra (fruit), Dischidia major (nectar), Etlingera elatior (nectar), Ficus benjamina (insect), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (nectar), Heliconia sp. (nectar), Manihot esculenta (nectar), Morinda citrifolia (nectar, leaf-bath), Pedilanthus tithymaloides (nectar), Poikilospermum suaveolens (nectar), Schefflera actinophylla (nectar), Saraca cauliflora (nectar), Stachytarpheta mutabilis (nectar), Syzygium grande (nectar), Thalia geniculata (nectar)
Olive-backed Sunbird Nectarinia jugularis – Albizia saman (nectar), Amaranthus sp. (insect), Azdirachta indica (insect), Bamboos (nesting), Barleria sp. (nest-material branch), Bougainvillea sp. (nectar), bryophyte (nest-material), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (nectar), Calliandra emarginata (nesting), Canna hybrids (nectar), Caryota mitis (leaf-bath), Cinnamomum iners (leaf-bath), Clitoria sp. (nectar), Cocos nucifera (nectar, nest-material fibre), Costus woodsonii (nectar), Cratoxylum formosum (nectar), Dendrophthoe pentandra (nectar, fruit), Dillenia suffruticosa (leaf-bath), Elaeocarpus pedunculatus (nest-material bark), Epipremnum pinnatum Aureum (nesting), Episcia cupreata ‘Acajou’ (nectar), Eragrostis sp. (nest-material fruiting-head), Erythrina sp. (nectar), Fagraea fragrans (nesting), Ficus benjamina ‘Variegated White’ (nesting), Heliconia sp. (nectar), Heliconia pstticorum ‘Lady Di’ (nectar), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (nectar, nest-material petal), Hura crepitans (nesting, nest-material bark), Imperata cylindrica (nest-material seed-pappus), Ixora sp. (nectar), Lantana camara ‘Hybrida’ (nectar), Lumnitzera littorea (nectar), Macaranga heynei (fruit), Macrosolen cochinchinensis (fruit), Malvaviscus arboreus (nectar), Manihot glaziovii (nectar), Melaleuca cajuputi (nectar), Merremia tridentate (nest-material leaf), Melastoma malabathricum (nest-material, nesting), Morinda citrifolia (nectar), Porophyllum ruderale (mest-naterial fruit), Psidium guajava (nest-material bark), Quisqualis indica (insect), Russelia equisetiformis (nectar), Saraca cauliflora (nectar), Stachytarpheta indica (nectar), Syzygium sp. (nectar), Typha angustifolia (nest-material seed-pappus), Wrightia religiosa (nectar)
Plain Sunbird Anthreptes simplex – Macaranga bancana (fruit, nectar), Macaranga heynei (fruit, nectar), Mimusops elengi (nectar), Mistletoe (nectar)
Purple-naped Sunbird Hypogramma hypogrammicum – Areca catechu (nesting), Bauhinia sp. (nectar), Dischidia hirsute (nectar), Macaranga bancana (fruit, nectar)
Red-throated Sunbird Anthreptes rhodolaema – Callistemon sp. (nectar), Macaranga bancana (nectar, fruit), Saraca cauliflora (nectar)
Ruby-cheeked Sunbird Chalcoparia singalensis – Macaranga bancana (nectar, fruit)
Van Hasselt’s (Purple-throated) Sunbird Leptcoma brasiliana – Callistemon sp. (nectar), Dillenia suffruticosa (seed), Lumnitzera littorea (nectar), Morinda elliptica (nectar), Poikilospermum suaveolens (flower), Saraca sp. (nectar), Saraca cauliflora (nectar)
Durio zibethinus (nectar)
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter Arachnothera affinis – Clerodendrum thomsonii (nectar), Cocos nucifera (nectar), Costus spicatus (nectar), Etlingera elatior (nectar), Musa 1000 fingers (nectar), Musa ‘1000 Fingers’ (nectar), Musa ornata (nectar), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Macaranga gigantean (fruit), Musa cultivar (nectar)
Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra – Allamanda sp. (nectar), Citrus hystrix (nectar), Carica papaya (nectar), Costus spicatus (nectar), Etlingera elatior (nectar), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. (nectar), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Musa cultivar (nesting), Etlingera elatior (nectar), Musa cultivar (nectar), Musa sp. (nectar)
Long-billed Spiderhunter Arachnothera robusta – Musa cultivar (nesting)
Spectacled Spiderhunter Arachnothera flavigaster – Hevea brasiliensis (nesting), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Musa cultivar (nectar, nesting), Passiflora coccinea (nectar), Spathodea campanulata (nectar), Vitex pinnata (fruit)
Streaked Spiderhunter Arachnothera magna – Brugmansia x candida (nectar), Callistemon sp. nectar), Musa cultivar (nesting), Musa ornata (nectar), Sanchezia sp. (nectar), Poikilospermum suaveolens (flower)
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter Arachnothera chrysogenys – Durio zibethinus (nectar), Etlingera elatior (nectar), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Musa cultivar (forage), Nephelium lappaceum (fruit), Spathodea campanulata (nectar),

34. ORIOLIDAE (orioles)
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis – Alstonia angustiloba (nesting), Archontophoenix alexandrae (?fruit), Azdirachta indica (fruit), Callistemon sp. (nectar), Cissus hastata (fruit), Epipremnum pinnatum (fruit), Epipremnum pinnatum Aureum (fruit), Erythrina variegata (nectar), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus fistulosa (fruit), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Ficus microcarpa (fruit), Gnetum gnemon (fruit), Mangifera indica (fruit), Michelia champaca (fruit), Morinda citrifolia (fruit), Musa cultivar (fruit), Nephelium lappaceum (fruit), Pipturus argenteus (fruit), Pithecellobium dulce (fruit), Pterocarpus indicus (roost), Schefflera actinophylla (nectar), Syzygium sp. (nectar), Syzygium aqueum (fruit), Syzygium grande (fruit)
Dark-throated Oriole Oriolus xanthonotus – Ficus sp. (fruit)

35. PARIDAE (tits)
Sultan Tit Melanochlora sultanea – bryophyte (nest-material plant)

36. PASSERIDAE (old world sparrows)
Eurasian Tree-sparrow Passer montanus – Acalypha sp. (nest-material fruiting-head), Acalypha siamensis (fruit), Allium cepa (nest-material fruit-br), Clidemia hirta (fruit), Cassis sp. (nest-material leafr), Celosia argentea (fruit), Cocos nucifera (nest-material fibre), Cynodon dactylon (nest-material stem), Eleusine indica (nest-material fruiting-head), Eragrostis sp. (nest-material fruiting-head), Imperata cylindrica (nest-material leaf, nest-material seed-pappus), Ixora javanica (insect), Oryza sativa (seed), Paspalum conjugatum (nest-material fruiting-head), Salvia splendens (fruit), Sporobolus sp. (nest-material fruiting-head), Vitex pubescens (nesting)

37. PHALACROCORACIDAE (cormorants)
Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger – Ipomoea aquatica (forage)
Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis – Ipomoea aquatica (forage)

38. PHASIANIDAE (phaesants and junglefowls)
Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus – Asplenium nidus (nesting)
Malayan Partridge Arborophila campbelli – Pratia begoniaefolia (fruit)
Mountain Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron inopinatum – Calamus sp. (fruit)
Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus – Asplenium nidus (nesting)

[nest-site, from left (bird-plant) – Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker-Horsfieldia sp.; House Crow-Peltophorum pterocarpum; Tailorbird-Averrhoa carambola]

39. PICIDAE (woodpeckers)
Common Flameback Dinopium javanense – Acacia auriculiformis (insect), Areca catechu (forage), Artocarpus integer (fruit), Cocos nucifera (nesting). Dalbergia oliveri (ant-sap), Lagerstroemia speciosa (nesting), palm (forage), Mangifera indica (forage), Nephelium lappaceum (fruit), Paraserianthes falcataria (insect)
White-browed Piculet Piculet Sasia ochracea – bamboo (?forage)
Banded Woodpecker Chrysophlegma miniaceus – Cyrtostachys renda (insect), Rhopaloblaste ceramica (forage), Schefflera actinophylla (insect)
Bay Woodpecker Blythipicus pyrrhotis – Pandanus sp. (forage)
Buff-rumped Woodpecker Meiglyptes tristis – Artocarpus heterophyllus (insect)
Great Slaty Woodpecker Mulleripicus pulverulentus – Lumnitzera (nesting)
Grey-capped Pygmy Woodpecker Dendrocopos canicapillus – Casuarina equisetifolia (forage)
Laced Woodpecker Picus vittatus – Avicennia sp. (nesting), Cocos nucifera (nesting), Durio zibethinus (?fruit, ?insect), Elaeis guineensis (fruit, insect), Mangifera indica (nesting), Spondias sp. (nesting)
Rufous Woodpecker Micropternus brachyurus – Artocarpus heterophyllus (forage)
Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker Dendrocopos moluccensis – Cratoxylum formosum (forage), Erythrina sp. (nectar), Pometia pinnata (insect)
Lesser Yellownape Picus chlorolophus – Dischidia astephana (ant)

40. PITTIDAE (pittas)
Gurney’s Pitta Pitta gurneyi – bamboo (nesting)
Hooded Pitta Pitta sordida – bamboo (nesting)

41. PLOCEIDAE (weavers)
Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus – Acacia auriculiformis (nesting), Areca catechu (nesting), Callistemon sp. (nectar), Chrysopogon aciculatus (seed), Cocos nucifera (nesting), Commersonia bartramia (nest-material fruit), Mimosa sp. (nesting), Oryza sativa (seed), Panicum maximum (nest-material leaf), Pennisetum polystachion (seed), Pennisetum purpureum (seed), Syzygium samarangense (nectar)
Golden-backed Weaver Ploceus jacksoni – Oryza sativa (fruit)

42. PSITTACIDAE (parrots)
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot Loriculus galgulus – Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Erythrina sp. (?nectar), fungus (plant), Lansium domesticum (forage), lichen (plant), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Macrosolen cochinchinensis (nectar), Mangifera indica (fruit), Manilkara zapota (fruit), Nephelium lappaceum (fruit), Peltophorum pterocarpum (nectar), Psidium guajava (fruit), Rhopaloblaste ceramica (fruit), Syzygium sp. (fruit), Syzygium cumini (flower), Xanthostemon chrysanthus (nectar)
Chattering Lory Lorus garralus – Terminalia catappa (fruit)
Red-shouldered Macaw Diopsittaca nobilis – Albizia saman (flower, seed)
Blue-rumped Parrot Psittinus cyanurus – Averrhoa carambola (seed), Macaranga ?rhizinoides (fruit)
Blue-naped Parrot Tanygnathus lucionensis – Terminalia catappa (fruit)
Parakeet – Pterocarpus indicus (roost)
Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria – Nephelium lappaceum (seed)
Long-tailed Parakeet Psittacula longicauda – Acacia sp. (flower), Albizia saman (roost), Archontophoenix alexandrae (flower), Averrhoa carambola (seed), Bombax sp. (flower), Dendrophthoe pentandra (fruit), Dillenia suffruticosa (fruit), Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Paraserianthes falcataria (fruit)
Red-breasted Parakeet Psittacula alexandri – Elaeis guineensis (fruit), ?Avicennia sp. (leaf), Dillenia suffruticosa (fruit), Lagerstroemia speciosa (seed), Mangifera indica (fruit), Oryza sativa (seed), Peltophorum pterocarpum (insect), Pipturus argenteus (fruit), Pterocarpus indicus (nesting), Spathodea campanulata (seed), Swietenia macrophylla (seed), Tamarinda indica (fruit)
Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri – Acacia auriculiformis (seed), Adenanthera pavonina (seed), Elaeis guineensis (fruit), ?Avicennia sp. (leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (seed, flower), Caesalpinia pulcherrima var. flava (flower), Gliricidia sepium (flower), Spathodea campanulata (seed), Swietenia macrophylla (seed), Zizyphus mauritiana (fruit)

43. PYCNONOTIDAE (bulbuls)
Ashy Bulbul Hemixos flavala – Ficus benjamina (fruit)
Black-crested Bulbul Pycnonotus flaviventris – Ficus benjamina (fruit), Manilkara zapota (fruit)
Black-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps – bamboo (nest-material leaf), Callicarpa glabrifolis (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit)
Buff-vented Bulbul Iole olivacea – Callicarpa glabrifolis (fruit), Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Imperata cylindrical (nest-material leaf), Macaranga sp. (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit), bryophyte (nest-material plant)
Cream-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus simplex – Callicarpa glabrifolis (fruit), Dillenia suffruticosa (seed), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Piper sp. (fruit), Syzygium sp. (fruit), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit)
Hairy-backed Bulbul Tricholestes criniger – Ficus villosa (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit), mistletoe (fruit)
Olive-winged Bulbul Pycnonotus plumosus – Acacia mangium (seed), Callicarpa glabrifolis (fruit), Dillenia suffruticosa (seed), Dracaena sp. (nesting), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Macaranga spp. (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Sterculia sp. (fruit), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit)
Red-eyed Bulbul Pycnonotus brunneus – Acacia mangium (seed), Callicarpa glabrifolis (fruit), Capsicum annuum (fruit), Ficus sp. (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Lantana camara (fruit), Macaranga sp. (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Piper sp. (fruit), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit)
Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus – Anacardium occidentale (fruit), Averrhoa bilbmbi (nesting), Averrhoa carambola (flower), bamboo (nest-material ?leaf), Bridelia tomentosa (fruit), Carica papaya (fruit), Clidemia hirta (fruit), grass (nest-material stem/root/inflorescence), Hylocereus undatus (fruit), Lantana camara (fruit), palm (nest-material ?leaf), Pyrrosia piloselloides (nest-material stem/leaf), Russelia equisetiformis (nest-material stem)
Scaly-breasted Bulbul Pycnonotus squamatus – Ficus villosa (fruit), Trema tomentosa (fruit)
Spectacled Bulbul Pycnonotus erythropthalmos – Callicarpa glabrifolis (fruit), Ficus sp. (fruit), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Piper sp. (fruit), Pipturus argenteus (fruit)
Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus – Archontophoenix alexandrae (?fruit), Bauhinia x blakeana (petal), Bridelia tomentosa (fruit), Leea indica (fruit)
Streaked Bulbul Ixos malaccensis malaccensis – Ficus sp. (fruit)
Striped-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus finlaysoni – Archontophoenix alexandrae (?fruit), Ficus sp. (fruit), Manilkara zapota (fruit)
Yellow-bellied Bulbul Alophoixus phaeocephalus – Cocos nucifera (nest-material fibre)
Yellow-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus goiavier – Acacia mangium (seed), Ageratum conyzoides (nesting), Albizia saman (leaf), Allamanda cathartica (nesting), Andira inermis (flower), Arachis pintoi (flower), Archontophoenix alexandrae (fruit), Artocarpus integer (nest-material leaf), Asplenium nidus (nest-material leaf), Averrhoa carambola (ant, nesting), Azdirachta indica (fruit), Bamboos (nesting, nest-material leaf), Baphia nitida (nesting, roost), Bridelia tomentosa (fruit), Calliandra haematocephala (nectar), Callistemon sp. (nectar), Carica papaya (seed, fruit), Carmona retusa (fruit), Cissus hastata (fruit), Clitoria sp. (flower), Cocos nucifera (flower, nest-material bark, nest-material fibre), Cratoxylum formosum (nectar, insect, flower bud), Dillenia suffruticosa (seed), Dracaena reflexa (nesting), Durio zibethinus (nest-material leaf), Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Etlingera elatior (leaf-bath), Ficus benjamina (fruit, nest-material leaf), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Ficus religiosa (fruit), Hevea brasiliensis (nest-material leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (nesting), Hylocereus undatus (fruit), Imperata cylindrica (nest-material seed-pappus, nest-material leaf), Jasminum sambac (nest-material leaf), Macaranga gigantea (fruit), Mangifera indica (fruit), Melastoma malabathricum (fruit), Merremia tridentate (nest-material stem), Morinda citrifolia (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Murraya koenigii (leaf-bath, fruit), Musa cultivar (fruit, nest-material fibre), Nephelium lappaceum (fruit), Pipturus argenteus (fruit), Pithecellobium dulce (fruit), Pouteria obovata (fruit), Psidium guajava (fruit), Ptycospermun macarthuri (fruit), Pyrrosia piloselloides (nest-material plant), Raphis excelsa (nesting), Rhopaloblaste ceramica (fruit), Schefflera actinophylla (nectar), Solanum sp. (fruit), Spathodea campanulata (nectar), Syzygium sp. (nectar), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit), Tabernaemontana corymbosa (fruit), Thalia geniculata (flower), Tillandsia usneoides (nest-material plant), Vitis vinifera (fruit), Xanthostemon chrysanthus (nectar)

44. RALLIDAE (rails, crakes, gallinules & coots)
Grey (Purple)-headed Swamphen Porphyrio poliocephalus – Kyllinga polyphylla (f-st)
Watercock Gallicrex cinerea – Oryza sativa (nesting, plant)
White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus – Musa cultivar (fruit), Nymphaea sp. (forage), Oryza sativa (seed), Pycreus polystachyos (seed)

45. RHIPIDURIDAE (fantails)
Pied Fantail Rhipidura javanica – bamboo (nesting), Bauhinia kokiana (nesting), Hura crepitans (nesting)

46. SITTIDAE (nuthatches)
Velvet-fronted Nuthatch Sitta frontalis – Macaranga gigantea (fruit)

47. STRIGIDAE (typical owls)
Barred Eagle-owl Bubo sumatranus – Asplennium nidus (nesting)
Buffy Fish-owl Ketupa ketupu – Asplenium nidus (nesting)
Collared Scops-owl Otus lettica – Pterocarpus indicus (nesting), Cocos nucifera (roost)

[roosting site, from left (bird-plant) – Purple-backed Starling-?Syzygium grande; Spotted Dove-Artocarpus odoratissimus; Pink-necked Green-pigeon-Xanthostemon chrysanthus]

48. STURNIDAE (mynas and starlings)
Common Hill-myna Gracula religiosa – Archontophoenix alexandrae (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Paraserianthes falcataria (?insect)
Myna – Macaranga gigantea (fruit)
Common Myna Acridotheres tristis – Azdirachta indica (fruit), Cocos nucifera (nesting), Ficus benjamina (?fruit), Oryza sativa (seed), Pipturus argenteus (fruit)
Javan Myna Acridotheres javanicus – Bauhinia acuminata (f-p), Bridelia tomentosa (fruit), Carica papaya (seed), Campnosperma auriculata (fruit), Casuarina equisetifolia (young needle branches), Cissus hastata (fruit), Claoxylon indicum (seed), Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Endospermum malaccense (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Hylocereus undatus (fruit), Khaya senegalensis (roost), Morinda citrifolia (fruit), Peltophorum pterocarpum (roost), Pipturus argenteus (fruit), Pithecellobium dulce (fruit), Pterocarpus indicus (roost), Ptycospermun macarthuri (fruit), Schefflera actinophylla (nectar), Spathodea campanulata (nectar), Syzygium sp. (nectar), Syzygium grande (nesting), Xanthostemon chrysanthus (nectar, nest-material leaf)
Jungle Myna Acridotheres fuscus – Cocos nucifera (nesting), Elaeis guineensis (fruit)
White-vented Myna Acridotheres grandis – Ficus grossularioides (fruit)
Asian Glossy Starling Aplonis panayensis – Albizia saman (leaf), Archontophoenix alexandrae (fruit), Areca catechu (nesting), Azdirachta indica (fruit), Bridelia tomentosa (fruit), Casuarina equisetifolia (forage), Cratoxylum formosum (roost), Cyrtostachys renda (fruit), Durio zibethinus (nest-material leaf), Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Ficus sp. (fruit), Ficus benjamina (fruit), Ficus fistulosa (fruit), Ficus grossularioides (fruit), Ficus religiosa (fruit), Imperate cy;indrica (nest-material leaf), Macaranga spp. (fruit), Mangifera indica (fruit), Michelia champaca (fruit), Morinda citrifolia (fruit), Muntingia calabura (fruit), Nephelium lappaceum (leaf), Paraserianthes falcataria (?leaf), Pipturus argenteus (fruit), Pithecellobium dulce (fruit), Ptycospermun macarthuri (fruit), Rhopaloblaste ceramica (fruit, nest-material, roost), Spathodea campanulata (nectar), Syzygium sp. (nectar), Syzygium grande (roost)
Purple-backed Starling Sturnus sturninus – Casuarina equisetifolia (young needle branch), Macaranga gigantea (fruit), Pterocarpus indicus (roost), Syzygium sp. (nectar), Syzygium grande (roost), Syzygium polyanthum (fruit)

49. SYLVIIDAE (old world warblers)
Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis – Ficus benjamina (insect), Ficus religiosa (insect), Syzygium polyanthum (insect)
Chestnut-crowned Warbler Seicercus castaniceps – bryophyte (nest-material plant)
Eastern Crowned Warbler Phylloscopus coronatus – Ficus benjamina (insect)
Yellow-bellied Warbler Abroscopus superciliaris – bamboo (nest-material leaf)
Yellow-browed (Inornate) Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus – Syzygium polyanthum (insect)

50. TIMALIIDAE (babblers)
Buff-breasted babbler Pellorneum tickelli – bamboo (nest-material leaf)
Chestnut-winged Babbler Stachyris erythroptera – rattan (nesting)
Golden Babbler Stachyridopsis chrysaea – bamboo (nest-material leaf)
Grey-throated Babbler Stachyris nigriceps – bamboo (nest-material leaf)
Rufous-fronted Babbler Stachyridopsis rufifrons – bamboo (nest-material, nesting)
Spot-necked Babbler Stachyris strialata – bamboo (nest-material leaf)
Short-tailed Babbler Malacocincla malaccensis – Ficus grossularioides (fruit)
Brown-cheeked Fulvetta Alcippe poioicephala – bamboo (nest-material leaf)
Rufous-winged Fulvetta Pseudominla castaneceps – bamboo (nest-material leaf), bryophyte (nesting)
Spectacled Laughingthrush (=Chestnut-capped L) Rhinocichla mitrata – Callistemon sp. (nectar), Macaranga sp. (fruit), Poikilospermum suaveolens (flower)
White-crested Laughingthrush Garrulax leucolopus – Elaeis guineensis (fruit), Musa cultivar (fruit), Durio zibethinus (fruit)
Large Scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus hypoleucos – bamboo (nest)
Long-tailed Sibia Heterophasia picaoides – Callistemon sp. (nectar), Eucalyptus sp. (nectar)
Blue-winged (Minla) Siva Siva cyanouroptera – Eucalyptus sp. (nectar)
Pin-striped Tit-babbler Macronous gularis – Dillenia suffruticosa (leaf-bath)

51. TURDIDAE (thrushes)
Slaty-backed Forktail Enicurus schistaceus – Ficus religiosa (nest-material leaf)
White-tailed Robin
Myiomela leucura – bryophyte (nesting)
Blue Rock-thrush Monticola solitarius – Ficus benjamina (fruit)
Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus obscurus – Ficus grossularioides (fruit)
Orange-headed Thrush Zoothera citrina citrina – Macaranga sp. (fruit)
Siberian Thrush Zoothera sibirica – Ficus sp. (fruit)

52. TURNICIDAE (buttonquails)
Barred Buttonquail Turnix suscitator – Imperata cylindrical (nesting), grass (seed)

53. TYTONIDAE (barn-owls)
Barn-owl Tyto alba – Dimocarpus longan (roost)

54. ZOSTEROPIDAE (white-eyes)
Everett’s White-eye Zosterops everettis – Callistemon sp. (ant, nectar), Eucalyptus sp. (nectar), Macaranga bancana (fruit), Poikliospremun suaveolens (nectar)
Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus – Carmona retusa (fruit)
Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus – Bougainvillea sp. (nectar, forage), bryophyte (nest-material plant), Callistemon rigidus (nest-material leaf, nesting), Cratoxylum formosum (flower bud, nectar), Dendrophthoe pentandra (nectar), Eucalyptus sp. (nectar), Macaranga heynei (fruit), Melaleuca cajuputi (?insect), Moringa pterygosperma (nectar), Schefflera actinophylla (nectar)

YC Wee
June 2015

If you like this post please tap on the Like button at the left bottom of page. Any views and opinions expressed in this article are solely those of the authors/contributors, and are not endorsed by the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum (LKCNHM, NUS) or its affiliated institutions. Readers are encouraged to use their discretion before making any decisions or judgements based on the information presented.

YC Wee

Dr Wee played a significant role as a green advocate in Singapore through his extensive involvement in various organizations and committees: as Secretary and Chairman for the Malayan Nature Society (Singapore Branch), and with the Nature Society (Singapore) as founding President (1978-1995). He has also served in the Nature Reserve Board (1987-1989), Nature Reserves Committee (1990-1996), National Council on the Environment/Singapore Environment Council (1992-1996), Work-Group on Nature Conservation (1992) and Inter-Varsity Council on the Environment (1995-1997). He is Patron of the Singapore Gardening Society and was appointed Honorary Museum Associate of the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum (LKCNHM) in 2012. In 2005, Dr Wee started the Bird Ecology Study Group. With more than 6,000 entries, the website has become a valuable resource consulted by students, birdwatchers and researchers locally and internationally. The views and opinions expressed in this article are his own, and do not represent those of LKCNHM, the National University of Singapore or its affiliated institutions.

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