Blue-eared Barbet and its black gular sac

on 18th June 2008

According to the literature, the prominent black sac seen in the Blue-eared Barbet (Megalaima australis) is a gular sac, also called vocal sac. See earlier posts 1, 2 and 3.


Birds produce most of their sounds with their syrinx, the sound producing organ sited where the windpipe divides into two. What is less known is that there are secondary acoustic structures that modify the sounds produced by the syrinx – whether to spread, amplify or reverberate. One of these is the vocal sac, prominent and exaggerated in some species.

According to Dantzker & Bradbury (2006), the bare vocal or gular sacs seen in the North American grouse and the Neotropical cotingas are inflated only in acoustic display. As most of these sacs are brightly coloured, they are probably also involved in visual signaling. The pan-tropical frigatebirds (below left) and two storks, the Old World Marabou (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) (below right) and New World Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria), also inflate their necks and vocalise, but not always at the same time.


In the above species, the sacs are often held fully inflated for lengthy periods in a strictly visual display and only used occasionally in sound production.

Three other groups have vocal sacs that are equally impressive but not devoid of feathers. Perhaps the most striking is the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), an endangered flightless parrot from New Zealand that seems to inflate its whole body when booming. Many medium to large bustards, like the Kori Bustard (Ardeotis kori) (below left) inflate sacs that are often covered in elaborate feathering; and some but not all inflating bustard species vocalise while inflated (Collar, 1996; Dantzker & Bradbury, 2006).


According to Johnsgard (1983), certain calls among yearling crowned cranes involve the inflation of the gular sac. This is thought to serve as a resonator that may provide increased carrying power. In the Australian Crane (Grus rubicundus), the gular sac of the male is inflated during display and possibly helps to resonate low-frequency sounds. The Grey Crowned Crane (Balearica gegulorum) of Africa is shown above (right).

Strangely, there is no mention of barbets having gular sacs, not even in the most recent monographs of these birds. It is now obvious that the Blue-eared Barbet’s black sac plays a role in vocalisation, possibly also in fruit storage. And according to Adrian, other species of barbets also have these sacs. Obviously, there is much to be learnt about gular sacs and barbets. Happily, bird photographers like Adrian are currently at the forefront of this investigation.

YC Wee & Adrian Lim
June 2008

Collar, N. J. (1996). Family Otididae (Bustards). Pp. 240-275 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Editions.
2. Dantzker, M. S. & Bradbury, J. W. (2006). Vocal sacs and their role in avian acoustic display. Acta Zoologica Sinica (Suppl.) 52:486-488.
3. Johnsgard, P. J. (1983). The cranes of the world. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
4. Short, L. L. & Horne, J. F. M. (2001). Toucans, barbets and honeyguides: Ramphastidaer, Capitonidae and Indicatoridae. Oxford University Press.
5. Short, L. L. & Horne, J. F. M. (2002). Family Capitonidae (Barbets). Pp. 140-219 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 7. Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Barcelona: Lynx Editions.

Image of barbet by Adrian Lim, others by YC.

An account of this barbet’s gular sac has now been published:
Lim, A. T. H., L. K. Wang & Y. C. Wee, 2009. The Blue-eared Barbet Megalaima australis and its gular sac. BirdingASIA 11: 98-101.

This post is a cooperative effort between and BESG to bring the study of bird behaviour through photography to a wider audience.

If you like this post please tap on the Like button at the left bottom of page. Any views and opinions expressed in this article are solely those of the authors/contributors, and are not endorsed by the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum (LKCNHM, NUS) or its affiliated institutions. Readers are encouraged to use their discretion before making any decisions or judgements based on the information presented.

YC Wee

Dr Wee played a significant role as a green advocate in Singapore through his extensive involvement in various organizations and committees: as Secretary and Chairman for the Malayan Nature Society (Singapore Branch), and with the Nature Society (Singapore) as founding President (1978-1995). He has also served in the Nature Reserve Board (1987-1989), Nature Reserves Committee (1990-1996), National Council on the Environment/Singapore Environment Council (1992-1996), Work-Group on Nature Conservation (1992) and Inter-Varsity Council on the Environment (1995-1997). He is Patron of the Singapore Gardening Society and was appointed Honorary Museum Associate of the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum (LKCNHM) in 2012. In 2005, Dr Wee started the Bird Ecology Study Group. With more than 6,000 entries, the website has become a valuable resource consulted by students, birdwatchers and researchers locally and internationally. The views and opinions expressed in this article are his own, and do not represent those of LKCNHM, the National University of Singapore or its affiliated institutions.

Other posts by YC Wee

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